Крупнейшее хранилище минеральных коллекций России

Одновременно при институте был организован Горный музей, ставший знаменитым крупнейшим хранилищем минеральных коллекций России и всего мира. В 1817 году в Петербурге любителями минералогии было основано Минералогическое общество, впоследствии тесно примкнувшее в своей деятельности к Горному институту. Можно согласиться поэтому с Д. П. Григорьевым и И. И. Шафрановским, что «история минералогии в Горном институте в значительной степени есть история русской минералогии вообще».

В справедливости сказанного мы убеждаемся, прослеживая успешное развитие в минералогии школы, основанной питомцами Горного института. Перед нами раскрываются славные дела ее крупнейших представителей — академика Н. И. Кокшарова и его талантливого ученика, впоследствии академика, П. В. Еремеева. Н. И. Кокшаров явился родоначальником точной минералогии.

«Путем точных исследований образцовых кристаллов,— пишет академик В. И. Вернадский,—Кокшаров положил прочный фундамент навсегда, для всех обобщений в данной области».

Отдавая должное прогрессивному для своего времени значению периода описательной минералогии, Д. П. Григорьев и И. И. Шафрановский показывают вместе с тем, как постепенно зарождается и созревает новое направление, открывшее аналитический период в минералогии. Этот период знаменателен стремлением к анализу фактов минералогии и созданием далеко ведущих теоретических обобщений. С чувством гордости за отечественную науку авторы отмечают, что многие важнейшие теоретические построения в области минералогии были сделаны гениальным русским ученым, профессором Петербургского горного института Е. С. Федоровым, далеко опередившим виднейших зарубежных ученых. Замечательные федоровские открытия получили признание во всем мире.

В последнее десятилетие XIX века и в начале XX столетия, параллельно с блестящей деятельностью Е. С. Федорова, возникает и быстро развивается другое течение в минералогии, главой которого несомненно является академик В. И. Вернадский, который не только основал новое направление, но «.создал вокруг себя прекрасную научную школу, объединив университетскую молодежь» (А. Е. Ферсман).

В целом роль и значение Вернадского как крупного новатора и реформатора русской минералогии, ученого с мировым именем, основоположника новой школы, воспитавшей талантливых последователей, обрисована очень ярко. Самым выдающимся учеником и последователем В. И. Вернадского был академик А. Е. Ферсман.

Переходя к характеристике развития минералогии в Советском Союзе, Д. П. Григорьев и И. И. Шафрановокий отмечают высокий уровень и многообразие минералогических исследований, ведущихся в нашей стране. Величественный размах этих работ ни в коей мере не сравним с предреволюционным периодом. Систематически изучаются огромные пространства Советского Союза с его богатейшими минеральными ресурсами. Самой важной особенностью в развитии советской науки вообще и минералогии в частности является тесная связь с практикой, дающая замечательные результаты.

 

 

 

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