Методика реконструкции портрета

Постепенно перед взором терпеливого искателя вырисовывались постоянные и непреложные закономерности.

Череп с четко выраженным микрорельефом, с плотной, глянцевитой надкостницей свидетельствует о том, что человек обладал сильной и сухой мускулатурой лица. Смягченный, как бы сглаженный рельеф черепа, наоборот, означает, что лицо было полным, рыхлым. Объясняется это тем, что избыток жира не только залегает между пучками мышц, но и обогащает кости черепа, что и ведет к разбуханию надкостницы, делая ее шероховатой.

Герасимову удалось подметить также одну важную деталь, которая до него не привлекала внимания анатомов. Оказалось, что асиметрии черепа прямо соответствует асиметрия лица — один из основных элементов индивидуализации.

Острая наблюдательность и неистощимое трудолюбие вели исследователя все дальше и дальше. Постепенно ему удалось найти ориентиры, свидетельствующие о соотношении мягкого и костного носа, форме рта, строении глаза, посадке головы. Оказалось, например, что строение орбиты, форма переносья, ширина межглазничного расстояния предоставляют антропологу все необходимые данные о форме глаза и век, что рельеф нижнего края передней части нижней челюсти определяет характер подбородка, а постановка уха находится в связи с общим характером соотношения нижней челюсти к черепу.

Учитывая совокупность всех этих и десятков других, более тонких

признаков, Герасимов разработал методику реконструкции портрета, ныне подробно изложенную в его книге «Основы восстановления лица по черепу».

Оставалось проверить правильность установленных закономерностей, исключить возможные сомнения. И Герасимов поставил ряд интересных контрольных опытов.

Несколько лет назад на одном из московских кладбищ был вскрыт фамильный склеп. Ученые установили принадлежность скелетов. Один череп с отсутствовавшими затылочной костью и основанием был передан Герасимову, причем ему сообщили только то, что умерший жил около 100 лет назад и был родственником одного из русских писателей.

Высокая лобная кость с тонко очерченным надбровьем, широкий раструб открытых, почти квадратных орбит, слабо профилированные скуловые кости, легкая нижняя челюсть рассказали исследователю, что это была молодая женщина с большим лбом, большими, красиво поставленными глазами, небольшим ртом и выступающим подбородком.




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