Наследственные свойства микроорганизмов

По сравнению с другими, более высокоорганизованными растениями и животными, микроорганизмы наиболее тесно и непосредственно связаны с окружающей их средой. Однако именно на примере микроорганизмов зарубежные вейсманисты-морганисты в последнее время пытаются доказать, что живые организмы не изменяют своих наследственных свойств под влиянием внешних условий.

Не стремясь осветить все стороны изменчивости микроорганизмов, мы покажем, как изменяются некоторые из них под влиянием лекарственных веществ.

Еще в 1887 году русский ученый Г. Косяков опубликовал в трудах парижского института Пастера подробные исследования о приспособлении микробов к ядовитым для них веществам: сулеме, буре и борной кислоте. Его исследования показали, что первоначальные культуры сибирской язвы росли в питательных средах, содержащих сулему в количестве— 1   часть на 20000 частей среды. После нескольких пересевов на питательные среды с возрастающими количествами сулемы Косяков получил культуры, которые росли на среде, содержащей почти вдвое больше сулемы. Ученый сделал совершенно правильный вывод. Он считал, что микробы сибирской язвы под влиянием ядов изменили свои свойства и дали поколения, более устойчивые к ним.

Начало научному изучению проблемы изменчивости бактерий положил своими замечательными исследованиями крупнейший советский микробиолог, почетный академик Н. Ф. Гамалея. Им был установлен факт изменчивости мечниковского вибриона. В 1894—1896 годах он установил, что бактерии изменяются под влиянием кофеина и солей лития.

Современные исследования также подтвердили факт приобретения микробами устойчивости к лекарственным веществам. Оказалось, что если очень чувствительный к пенициллину микроб — золотистый стафилококк (вызывающий нагноения и заражение крови)—выращивать на питательной среде с возрастающим содержанием этого лекарственного вещества, то появляются микробы, которые оказываются в 80 000 раз более устойчивыми к пенициллину, чем исходные.

Повышение устойчивости микробов к пенициллину может происходить we только в лабораторных опытах, в пробирке, но и в организме больного, правда, в меньшей степени. Следует подчеркнуть, что повышение устойчивости происходит довольно медленно. Поэтому в человеческом организме оно может быть вызвано продолжительным периодом лечения.




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