Окрестные племена туземцев

Знаменитый русский мореплаватель В. М. Головнин в свое время писал: «.хотя капитан Кук приписывает себе первое открытие северо-западного побережья Америки выше широты 57°, но он был введен в сие заблуждение по незнанию о плаваниях в том краю наших мореходцев и что тот край был нам лучше известен, нежели англичанам; например, славный сей мореплаватель утвердительно пишет, что он нашел большую реку, которую лорд Сандвич назвал его именем; Кук приводит и доказательства, что это действительно река; но русские знали, что так называемая Кукова река есть не река, а большой залив, который мы и теперь называем Кенайскою губою. Пролив между Кадьяком и Афогнаком Кук принял за залив и дал ему имя, другого пролива между Кадьяком и Аляскою Кук вовсе не знал, но русским он был известен под именем Кенайского пролива. капитан Кук сделал также и другие ошибки».

Однако Кук несомненно знал об открытиях русских в Тихом океане, но сознательно умолчал о них. На Алеутских островах он встретился с русским мореходом Герасимом Измайловым. По просьбе англичан Измайлов позволил им снять копию со своей карты. На Камчатке, в Петропавловской гавани, Кук виделся с капитаном Василием Шмелевым, образованным и любознательным человеком, состоявшим в переписке с петербургским академиком Миллером, которому он сообщал много интересных сведений о русских плаваниях и открытиях в Тихом океане. Шмалев, конечно, мог полностью удовлетворить любопытство англичан в отношении географии северной части бассейна Тихого океана.

В июне 1780 года девять чукотских байдар пересекли Берингов пролив. Вместе с чукчами на Большую Землю высадился пытливый и отважный русский человек, казачий сотник Иван Кобелев. Он прошел по американскому побережью до устья Юкона, внимательно изучая неведомый край. Кобе- леву принадлежит честь открытия величайшей реки Аляски.

16  августа 1783 года вышел из Охотска в свое знаменитое плавание Г. И. Шелихов. Им открывается новая полоса в истории плаваний, открытий и исследований русских в Тихом океане. Горячий патриот, умный и дальновидный человек, Шелихов решил основать постоянные русские поселения в Новом Свете, присоединить к России неведомые, европейцам земли, изучить их природные богатства, наладить там промысел и торговлю.





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