«Ответ физиолога психологам»

И казалось, что это — недаром, что здесь — действительно критический момент естествознания, так как мозг, который в высшей его формации — человеческого мозга — создавал и создает естествознание, сам становится объектом этого естествознания».

Своими исследованиями И. П. Павлов нанес сокрушительный удар по идеализму. Уже в самом начале изучения высшей нервной деятельности животных и человека он установил, что «высший отдел (центральной нервной системы. — П. Г.) держит в своем ведении все явления, происходящие в теле». Этим самым он положил начало новому направлению в физиологии — о взаимоотношениях коры головного мозга и внутренних органов, — направлению, которое сейчас успешно развивается К. М. Быковым и другими советскими учеными. Уже тогда на основании фактов, которыми располагал Иван Петрович, он смог нанести удар идеалистическим представлениям об отсутствии единства между различными функциями организма. В своей статье «Ответ физиолога психологам» Иван Петрович писал: «считаю более чем вероятным существование их (рефлекторных сигнализаций из внутренних органов. — П. Г.) даже для всех тканей, не говоря об отдельных органах. По моему мнению, весь организм со всеми его составными частями может давать себя знать большим полушариям» .

Развивая дело, начатое выдающимися русскими учеными Сеченовым и Боткиным, Иван Петрович со всей полнотой сформулировал идею целостности организма. «Да, я рад,—писал он,—что вместе с Иваном Михайловичем (Сеченовым. — П. Г.) и полком моих дорогих сотрудников мы приобрели для могучей власти физиологического исследования вместо половинчатого весь нераздельно животный организм. И это — целиком наша русская неоспоримая заслуга в мировой науке, в общей человеческой мысли».

Павловское представление об организме как едином целом, признание единства организма с внешней средой наносит сокрушительный удар по локалистическим, грубо механистическим представлениям и прежде всего по теории клеточной патологии Вирхова.

Вирховианство, завладевшее умами некоторых исследователей-клиницистов и практических врачей, нашло выражение в увлечении аналитическим методом исследования, в отходе от живого человека, как сложного целого. Вирховианство сковывало врачебную мысль и приводило к серьезным недостаткам и ошибкам при определении характера заболевания, оно уводило врачей от всестороннего глубокого обследования больных.

В противоположность вирховскому локализму, Боткин и Павлов положили начало новому физиологическому, функциональному направлению в русской клинической медицине. Объективные методы учета состояния высшей нервной деятельности позволили наметить пути для понимания природы таких форм и стадий болезни, которые протекают без анатомических изменений в органах и без резких функциональных изменений.




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