Повышение коэфициента полезного действия оросительных систем

Применение новой системы орошения требует проведения работ по более рациональному использованию поливной воды, значительному уменьшению ненужных, а часто и вредных потерь ее в каналах и на полях и повышению коэфициента полезного действия оросительных систем. При орошении сельскохозяйственных культур необходимо применять совершенные способы и приемы поливов, обеспечивающие высокое плодородие почв и получение высоких и устойчивых урожаев. Все мероприятия по орошению должны самым тесным образом увязываться с агротехникой и механизацией полевых работ.

Необходимо пересмотреть и по-новому поставить вопросы организации труда в колхозах, совхозах и МТС, так как производительность труда на полевых работах повысится в 1,5—3 раза. Передовые колхозы намечают укрупнение полевых бригад, доводя их состав до 40—60 и более человек. Намечается реорганизация тракторных бригад в соответствии с размерами укрупненных колхозов и повышением производительности труда на укрупненных поливных участках.

Из вышеизложенного ясно, что новая система орошения представляет собой высший этап в развитии поливного земледелия, в развитии социалистического сельского хозяйства орошаемых районов. Переход на новую систему орошения позволяет более полно использовать поливные земли. Например, по Янги- Юльскому району Узбекской ССР ликвидация постоянных оросительных каналов увеличивает поливную площадь на 400—500 гектаров.

Советское правительство оказывает большую помощь колхозам в переходе на новую систему орошения. Так, колхоз «Коммунист» Янги-Юльского района должен затратить на переустройство оросительной сети около 310 тысяч рублей. Сорок процентов этих средств оплачивает государство. Подсчитано, что затраты быстро окупятся преимуществами, которые получит колхоз от укрупнения участков.

Если принять, что с ликвидацией постоянных каналов по СССР произойдет увеличение поливных площадей только на 5 процентов, то количество поливных земель увеличится почти на 217 тысяч гектаров.





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