Рудознатцы и горщики

Книга состоит из двух неравных разделов. Первый, значительно меньший по объему (53 стр.), скромно названный «Введением», представляет, по " существу, краткий очерк истории развития минералогии в России, включая и советский период. Второй, более обширный раздел, посвящается жизни и деятельности восьми самых выдающихся русских минералогов.

«Введение» начинается кратким изложением истории развития минералогии в России. Отмечается зарождение познаний о камне еще в древности. Рудознатцы и горщики, в большинстве выходцы из народа, отыскивают в глубине страны медные, серебряные, железные руды и другие виды полезных ископаемых. В петровское время уже доказывается, что Россия «преизобилует и потребными металлами и минералами». Урал становится сокровищницей страны. В середине XVIII века при изучении камня применяются уже строго научные методы. Переломный момент в этом отношении связан с гениальными тру

дами М. В. Ломоносова. Его вклад в минералогическую науку трудно переоценить, так как высказанные им воззрения на многие десятилетия опередили взгляды его современников. Авторам книги удалось найти новые данные о великом русском ученом и показать его замечательную деятельность и в области геолого-минера- логических наук.

Дальнейшее развитие минералогии во второй половине XVIII века авторы связывают с организованными Академией Наук грандиозными экспедициями, охватившими своими исследованиями обширные пространства европейской и азиатской России. Россия выдвинулась уже тогда на первое место в мире по изучению своих природных богатств. В истории русской минералогии этот экспедиционный период, как его определяют авторы, имел своим практическим следствием накопление большого фактического материала по отечественным минералам. Явилась настоятельная необходимость в научном освоении и обобщении добытого материала. Эту важнейшую работу блестяще выполнил выдающийся русский минералог В. М. Севергин выпуском в свет в 1809 году обстоятельной сводки «Опыта минералогического землеописания Российского государства». Примечательным в трудах В. М. Севергина было то, что в них он выступает как первый русский представитель качественно- описательной минералогии и как самобытный ученый, критически подошедший к существовавшей в то время системе в минералогии.

Далее авторы показывают, какое огромное значение в истории русской минералогии имело открытие первых высших учебных заведений в России, в особенности учреждение в Петербурге в 1773 году Горного института, в котором минералогия первоначально являлась единственной геологической дисциплиной.

 

 

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