Смелые мореходы и промышленники

Проведя зиму на Командорски островах, галиоты Шелихова в августе 1784 года прошли вдоль Алеутской гряды, мимо Шумагинских и Евдокеевских островов и достигли острова Кадьяк. Здесь Шелихов провел два года. За это время он создал русские поселения на Кадьяке и соседнем острове Афогнаке, его люди внимательно обследовали побережье Аляски до мыса св. Ильи. Шелихов установил дружеские отношения с окрестными племенами туземцев, наладил торговлю и промысел морских котиков и бобров. В Россию он привез подробные сведения о новых заморских владениях.

В 1785 году начала свою работу в Сибири правительственная экспедиция под начальством Биллингса и Сарычева. Ее участники вначале занимались изучением полярного побережья Сибири, а в 1791 году Сарычев и Биллингс плавали вдоль Алеутской гряды, заходили на Кадьяк, побывали у северо-западного побережья Америки, близ горы св. Ильи.

Сарычев опубликовал впоследствии подробный и интересный отчет об этой важной экспедиции, приложив к нему большой атлас карт и рисунков.

Одно за другим возникали на северо-западном побережье Америки русские поселения. Смелые мореходы и промышленники во всех направлениях бороздили воды новых русских владений.

В 1790 году начал долголетнюю героическую деятельность в Америке Александр Баранов. На много тысяч километров раздвинул он границы русских владений, основал новые поселения. В 1794 году смелый промышленник Егор Пуртов плавал в Якутатский залив. На следующий год туда пришел на корабле Баранов. На берегу был поднят русский флаг и заложена крепость. Затем Баранов первым из русских мореходов миновал Ледяной пролив и бросил якорь в обширном заливе острова Ситха. Несколько лет спустя на берегу залива, с согласия живших там индейцев, была заложена Ново-Архангельская крепость, которой суждено было вскоре стать столицей русских владений в Америке.

В 1794 году у северо-западных берегов Америки появилась английская экспедиция под начальством капитана Ванкувера. Англичане часто встречались с мореходами Баранова, побывали в нескольких русских поселениях на берегу Кенайского залива, рассматривали русские карты. И на этот раз англичане не постеснялись заменить многие русские названия на американском побережье своими. Пристрастие иностранных мореплавателей давать свои названия вновь увиденным местам едко высмеивал В. М. Головнин. Он писал, что если бы кому-нибудь из них удалось сделать такие открытия, как сделали Беринг и Чириков, «то не токмо все мысы, острова и заливы американские получили бы фамилии князей и графов, но даже и по голым каменьям рассадил бы он всех министров и всю знать; и комплименты свои обнародовал бы всему свету. Ванкувер тысяче островов, мысов и пр., кои он видел, роздал имена всех знатных в Англии и знакомых своих, напоследок, не зная, как остальные назвать, стал им давать имена иностранных посланников, в Лондоне тогда бывших».

Еще более бесцеремонно вели себя другие английские мореплаватели, приходившие к берегам Русской Америки (так в то время назывались русские владения в Новом Свете).

 

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