Труд Циолковского

Весьма интересной по замыслу была одна из ранних научных работ Циолковского «Механика подобно изменяющегося организма» (1882—1883). В ней русский ученый впервые разобрал строение организмов и их свойства в зависимости от размеров и силы тяжести. Труд Циолковского был положительно оценен великим русским физиологом И. М. Сеченовым. Спустя почти 40 лет, в 1919—1920 годах, Циолковский снова возвращается к этой теме, расширяет ее и пишет несколько замечательных работ под общим названием «Механика в биологии».

Большую научную работу начал в 1885 году К. Э. Циолковский и в области теории и конструкции цельнометаллических дирижаблей. Первый труд его на эту тему (сохранившийся в виде рукописи) «Теория и опыт аэростата» (1887) по предложению А. Г. Столетова был доложен физическому отделению Общества любителей естествознания в Москве. Циолковский сделал детальный аэростатический расчет дирижабля нового типа —с металлической оболочкой, с возможностью изменения объема в полете и с подогревом газа. Кроме новизны конструкции, эта работа содержала ряд других важных предложений, которые в дальнейшем вошли в практику расчета и производства дирижаблей о всем мире. Их применяют и в настоящее время. Среди этих нововведений особенно важным был гидростатический метод испытания моделей оболочек дирижабля. Более детально он был изложен во втором выпуске работы «Аэростат металлический, управляемый:». Свои выводы по дирижаблестроению К. Э. Циолковский обосновал подробными вычислениями, схемами и экспериментальными работами.




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