Восстановление лица по черепу

Мысль о том, что между черепом и мягкими тканями лица существует какое-то более или менее постоянное соотношение, давно волновала антропологов. Вначале Шаффгаузен, а затем Коль- ман, Меркле, Сольгер, Мартин, Эггелинг и другие поочередно предприняли попытки по данным черепа восстановить облик ископаемого человека. Но ни одному из них не удалось разработать ни обоснованной методики подобных реконструкций, ни способов контроля. Изображения, созданные ими, были весьма гипотетичны и не имели особого успеха в ученом мире. Впрочем, сами авторы не отрицали условного характера своих реконструкций и, за немногими исключениями, довольно скептически оценивали перспективы работ в этой области. Во всяком случае, создание индивидуального портрета по черепу считалось едва ли возможным.

Такова, в самых кратких чертах, предистория смелых по замыслу, поразительных по результатам работ лауреата Сталинской премии М. М. Герасимова.

Когда 25 лет назад молодой исследователь увлекся реконструкциями, он еще не думал о том, что удастся создать индивидуальный портрет по черепу — эта идея родилась в процессе труда.

Потребовалось бы много страниц, чтобы рассказать о кропотливых измерениях десятков черепов, о скрупулезной работе, проведенной в моргах и анатомических залах, о сотнях сопоставленных и изученных рентгенограмм.





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