Амплитуда волн

В песке амплитуда упругих волн быстро уменьшается; в особенности это относится к волнам сжатия, поскольку фронт этих волн трехмерный в отличие от двумерного фронта поверхностных волн и энергия распределяется по большей плошали. Когда скорпион находится близко к источнику колебаний, он должен ощущать гораздо большую разницу в интенсивности стимуляции находящихся на разном расстоянии от источника ног, чем вдали от источника.

То, что животное, тем более живущее на песке, в своей жизнедеятельности полагается исключительно на информацию, передающуюся через субстрат. может показаться противоречащим здравому смыслу. Тем не менее песчаный скорпион, извлекающий информацию из колебаний песка, вероятно, вовсе не уникален в этом отношении. Другие природные субстраты, скажем лист, или яблоко, или веточка дерева, также могут предоставлять населяющим их мелким животным важную для тех информацию, передавая ее на небольшие расстояния благодаря своей форме или физическим свойствам. Песчаный скорпион — лишь один представитель из все увеличивающегося списка животных (среди них пауки, строящие норки с крышками, муравьиный лев, манящий краб и др.), которым ноги служат не только для передвижения, но и для «прислушивания» и которые, но возникающим в твердом субстрате механическим колебаниям определяют, где находится их источник.  Нобелевская премия по фишке 1984 г. — это символическое признание усилий сотен ученых, исследования которых позволили открыть в 1983    г. три новые частицы — промежуточные векторные бозоны И+, W~ и Z0, обмен которыми обусловливает слабое взаимодействие. Экспериментальное доказательство существования этих трех частиц было решающим этапом в подтверждении теории электрослабого взаимодействия, которой в настоящее время придерживаются многие физики, считая ее одним из важнейших достижений XX в. для объяснения фундаментальных природных процессов.

Премию получили совместно два наиболее одаренных и деятельных члена рабочей группы — Карло Руббиа из Гарвардского университета и ЦЕРНа (Европейская организация ядерных исследований, Швейцария) и Симон Ван дер Меер, который тоже работает в ЦЕРНе.

 

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