Анализ Фурье

Для того чтобы установить, насколько успешно волны различных частот и длин проходят через песок, я проанализировал формы волн сжатия, регистрируемых на разных расстояниях от постоянного источника. Эта процедура, называемая анализом Фурье, позволяет определить, до какой степени при прохождении сложного сигнала через среду затухают составляющие его волны с различными частотами. Я обнаружил, что песок ведет себя как весьма хороший проводник упругих волн в интервале частот 0,1—5 кГц. В сигналах, зарегистрированных на относительно большом расстоянии от источника, доминировали частоты около 1  кГц, а это как раз та частота, к которой механорецепторы большинства животных высокочувствительны. Кроме того, в песке этим частотам соответствуют достаточно короткие волны (длиной несколько сантиметров), так что такие мелкие существа, как скорпионы, способны улавливать разницу во времени поступления отдельных волн к рецепторам, расположенным на теле в разных местах. Может быть, наиболее удивительным свойством механических колебаний в песке оказалась низкая скорость их прохождения. Через большинство природных твердых субстратов упругие волны проходят с высокой скоростью, что и было одной из главных причин, по которым этологи склонялись к тому, чтобы исключить вибрации субстрата из числа факторов, способных вызывать у животных реакции ориентации. Из-за этой высокой скорости прохождения животное не может уловить разницу во времени поступления или в амплитуде колебаний к разным рецепторам и использовать эти характеристики для установления местонахождения источника волн. Измерения показали, однако, что волны сжатия распространяются в рыхлом поверхностном слое песка со скоростью примерно 120 м/с, т.е. в два с лишним раза медленнее, чем звук в воздухе; в плотном песке их скорость составляет примерно 200 м/с. Эти величины почти на порядок меньше, чем скорость звуковой волны в большинстве твердых тел. Рэлеевские волны проходят по песку еще медленнее, скорость их распространения просто поразительна — 40—50 м/с. Итак, скорпионы, по-видимому, улавливают как волны сжатия, так и рэлеевские волны и руководствуются ими при поисках добычи. Следующей задачей было выяснить, какие именно колебания воспринимают скорпионы и с помощью каких рецепторов.

Естественно было искать рецепторы на сегментах лапок скорпиона, т.е. на «ступнях» его ног, поскольку, согласно нашим наблюдениям, именно они и только они должны войти в контакт с субстратом, для того чтобы скорпион смог ориентироваться в пространстве.



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