Быстрое развитие речевых навыков у ребенка

КАК получается, что ребенок так быстро и с такой легкостью учится говорить и понимать речь? Процесс овладения языком начинается задолго до того, как родители отпразднуют его первый день рождения, а к трем годам большинство детей уже весьма успешно владеют речью. В отличие от чтения или арифметики свою речь ребенок совершенствует без формального обучения; значительную часть времени учение идет в весьма узких языковых рамках при неполном наборе языковых правил.

Быстрое развитие речевых навыков у ребенка можно было бы объяснить тем, что язык не так уж сложен и, следовательно, быстрота учения языку достигается за счет таких простых психологических механизмов, как выработка условных рефлексов и генерализация реакций), если бы выполненные в последние десятилетия исследования сущности языка и процессов говорения и восприятия речи не продемонстрировали сложность этих явлений.

Эксперименты, проведенные моими коллегами и мной в Университете Брауна, а также работы других исследователей позволили дать иное объяснение. Оно опирается на ту точку зрения (наиболее известным выразителем этой идеи является лингвист Н. Хомский), что в основе использования языка лежат врожденные умения и способности. Проводя исследования по восприятию речи младенцами, мы обнаружили, что маленькие испытуемые богато одарены врожденными механизмами восприятия, хорошо приспособленными к особенностям человеческого языка, и что это подготавливает их к вступлению в языковый мир.

Поиски врожденных механизмов восприятия речи продолжили исследования отношений между речевыми сигналами и фонемами, т.е. единицами восприятия, которые в языке соответствуют согласным и гласным звукам. Фонемы — это самые короткие звуковые единицы, которые существенны для понимания смысла; так, слова late («поздний») и rate («темп») отличаются лишь в одной фонеме, а их значения совершенно различны.

Сотрудники Массачусетского технологического института, Лаборатории Хаскинса в Нью-Хэйвене, Шведского королевского технологического института и других исследовательских организаций показали, что речевой сигнал представляет собой комплекс акустических единиц — сегментов, связанных очень короткими паузами или пиками интенсивности. Эти сегменты различаются по длительности, а также по частоте, временным отношениям и интенсивности составляющих их спектральных областей концентрации звуковой энергии, называемых формантами, и шумоподобных акустических компонентов, таких как аспиративный и фрикативный шумы. Вариации этих акустических параметров несут информацию, решающую для восприятия фонем.

 

 

 

 

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