Четыре взаимодействия

Еще 15 лет назад считалось, что четыре существующих в природе фундаментальных взаимодействия — электромагнитное, слабое, сильное и гравитационное — проявляются независимо друг от друга. Например, радиус действия слабых сил составляет около 10“16 см (что соответствует нескольким тысячным долям диаметра ядра атома водорода), тогда как радиус действия электромагнитных сил бесконечен. Тем не менее в теории электрослабого взаимодействия и слабые и электромагнитные силы рассматриваются как разные проявления единого взаимодействия.

Согласно этой теории (за разработку которой в 1979 г. Нобелевской премии были удостоены С. Вайнберг, А. Са- лам и Ш. Глэшоу), три векторных бозона, открытые в ЦЕРНе, служат переносчиками слабого взаимодействия, точно так же как фотон является переносчиком электромагнитного взаимодействия. Однако в отличие от фотона, масса которого равна нулю, три векторных бозона — очень массивные частицы; их масса, как считают теоретики, составляет 80—90 млрд. электронвольт. Вплоть до последнего времени считалось, что существующие ускорители не обладают достаточной мощностью, чтобы получить частицы со столь большой массой. Руббиа предложил перестроить имеющийся в ЦЕРНе большой кольцевой ускоритель, на котором осуществлялась бомбардировка неподвижной мишени ускоренными протонами, в установку со встречными пучками: два пучка — протонов и антипротонов — ускоряются в противоположных направлениях и затем сталкиваются. Энергия, выделяющаяся при каждом таком столкновении, значительно выше, чем в случае бомбардировки неподвижной мишени пучком протонов.

Поскольку антипротоны получить трудно, только несколько таких частиц может участвовать в столкновениях; поэтому пучок должен быть высоко сколлимированным, чтобы число столкновений было достаточным для получения статистически достоверного результата. Для решения проблемы фокусировки пучка ван дер Меер предложил оригинальную идею — «охлаждать» пучок антипротонов, чтобы избежать разброса энергии антипротонов (метод стохастического охлаждения). Датчики, расположенные в разных точках кольца ускорителя, регистрируют степень рассеяния пучка. Сигнал от датчика передается строго на противоположную сторону кольца и попадает на корректирующее устройство до того, как сгусток антипротонов достигнет этого места. Корректирующее устройство включает дополнительное магнитное поле, которое направляет сгусток антипротонов в нужном направлении.



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