Численность команды

Большая численность команды была необходима не только во время сражений: все работы на корабле производились вручную. Перед выходом в море матросы доставляли на борт все необходимое: боеприпасы, провиант и даже пушки. В пути приходилось постоянно то поднимать, то убирать паруса, что было делом весьма трудоемким. Помпы, установленные на средней палубе для того, чтобы откачивать воду из трюмов, также приводились в действие вручную. Во время боя в работу включались дополнительные помпы для тушения пожара и смывания с палубы крови. Тали, служившие для подъема на борт груза, выборки или отдачи якоря и установки парусов, тоже нужно было вращать вручную. В отличие от англичан испанцы и французы рассматривали военные корабли как боевые платформы для солдат и орудий. Эта стратегия часто приводила к тому, что дисциплина на испанских кораблях отсутствовала, что, по моему мнению, и было одной из причин поражения Испании в Трафальгарской битве. В принципе боевая тактика испанцев сводилась к тому, чтобы меткими залпами снести мачты вражеских кораблей. Подбитое судно брали на абордаж. Тактика же англичан была иной. Она заключалась в том, чтобы целиться в корпус корабля. Отчасти из-за того, что английские корабли были больше подвержены качке, англичане первыми заменили традиционный фитиль для запала на кремневый запал. Это позволяло поджигать заряд почти мгновенно, что увеличивало вероятность попадания ядра в цель прежде, чем корабль в очередной раз начнет крениться.

Во всех случаях боевые действия предпринимались с учетом того, что пушки XVIII в. наиболее метко стреляли прямой наводкой. Когда навио удавалось совершить удачный маневр и подойти к вражескому кораблю с кормы, было достаточно одного залпа из нескольких 32-фунтовых пушек, чтобы снести богато украшенную, но слабо защищенную корму. Более того, такой залп мог вывести из строя пушкарей на палубе, опрокинуть тяжелые пушки и, разбив деревянную обшивку в обломки, усеять палубу горящими кусками дерева, которые были, не менее опасны, чем смертоносные снаряды. Когда два враждующих военных корабля оказывались борт о борт, дула пушек убирались внутрь через порты; залпы производились изнутри и обладали огромной разрушительной силой.

 

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