Дети в возрасте нескольких месяцев

Японцы не в силах уловить разницу между фонемами достаточно заметную в английском языке; говорящие на английском языке не замечают основных контрастов в произношении, выделяющем фонемы в тайском языке. Однако некоторые фонематические различия характерны для языков всего мира. Мои коллеги и я сам предполагаем, что в основе категориального восприятия речи лежат биологические детерминанты, модифицируемые последующим языковым опытом. Чтобы определить, так ли это, мы провели эксперименты с младенцами, которые не умели говорить и по отношению к которым воздействие языка их родителей можно было считать минимальным.

В 1971 г. Э. Сиквилэнд, П. Юзчнк, Дж. Вигорито исследовали восприятие времени начала фонации у младенцев в возрасте одного и четырех месяцев. Мы предъявляли младенцам три различные пары звуков. Значения времени начала фонации в одной паре были 20 и 40 мс, т.е. лежали по разные стороны границы, характерной для взрослых, говорящих на английском и других языках. Для взрослых стимулы звучали как слоги bah и pah. В каждой из двух других пар (в одном случае значения времени начала фонаиии были равны 0 и 20 мс, в другом — 60 и 80 мс) оба стимула оказывались по одну сторону границы звонкости/глухости и воспринимались либо как bah, либо как pah.

Дети в возрасте нескольких месяцев не могут прямо сообщить о своем восприятии. Для того чтобы оценить реакцию младенцев на такие стимулы, мы обратились к методу, называемому «высокоамплитудным процессом сосания». Каждый младенец сосал соску, «подключенную» к датчику давления, который в свою очередь был соединен с записывающим устройством. Мы настраивали аппаратуру применительно к каждому отдельному ребенку таким образом, что в качестве отсчетного уровня прибор записывал исходный темп сосания (от 20 до 40 сосательных движений в минуту).

В процессе записи темпа сосания воспроизводился один звук из пары. При получении младенцем новой для него звуковой стимуляции темп его сосательных движений обычно возрастал, а спустя несколько минут начинал постепенно снижаться, видимо, в результате привыкания. Когда темп сосательных движений наших испытуемых снижался до прежнего уровня в результате привыкания к первому звуку, мы меняли стимул на другой звук той же пары. Если младенец, привыкший колличественному стимулу, неожиданно получал стимул, воспринимаемый им как отличный от первого, темп его сосательных движений обычно увеличивался.




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