Древнейшие жители Сибири

Открытые в последние годы на территории Алтая пещерные стоянки были заселены человеком 50-35 тыс. лет назад. Данные, полученные в результате раскопок этих стоянок, позволяют по-новому взглянуть на процесс освоения человеком Сибири.

КОГДА появились первые люди в Сибири? Какими путями они могли прийти из давно обжитых областей в глубину сибирских пространств? По этим вопросам высказывались различные мнения. Одни исследователи утверждали, что миграция палеолитического населения в Сибирь произошла прежде всего из Средней Азии, вдоль горных цепей Памира и Тянь-Шаня. Действительно, в Средней Азии рано сложились благоприятные для жизни древнейших людей условия. Здесь у подножия Копетдага, в бассейне Амударьи и Сырдарьи, издавна жили группы неандертальцев. Другие ученые считали, что широкая дорога в Сибирь была открыта из монгольских степей, за которыми находились Восточная и Юго-Восточная Азия — родина синантропа и питекантропа, а также Северная Индия — страна одной из древнейших культур человека — соана. Согласно третьей точке зрения миграция в Сибирь шла с запада, из областей Западного Приуралья и Русской равнины. В настоящее время после многолетних археологических исследований, проведенных Институтом истории, филологии и философии Сибирского отделения АН СССР, можно утверждать, что заселение палеолитическими людьми Сибири в целом происходило не из одного центра и не в одном направлении. Реальными могли быть все три направления — из Средней Азии, Восточной Азии и Восточной Европы.

Среди стоянок человека древнекаменного века в Сибири наибольшую известность получили два поселения: Мальта — у одноименной деревни на левом берегу Ангары и Буреть — у села Нижняя Буреть на правом берегу Ангары. Обитатели этих поселений — охотники на мамонтов, носорогов, северных оленей — вели полуоседлый образ жизни.

 

 

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