Другой подход

Вагонер предлагает использовать другой подход, основанный на методе определения расстояния, который был впервые предложен немецким астрономом В. Бааде в 1926 г. Сущность метода Бааде состоит в определении углового размера сверхновой (т.е. отношения ее радиуса к расстоянию до нее) по отношению достигшего Земли излучения к полному потоку ее излучения. Проводя измерения в различные моменты времени, можно получить угловую скорость разлета взорвавшейся звезды. Линейная скорость разлета может быть определена по доплеров- скому смешению в спектре звезды, а отношение этих двух скоростей дает расстояние до нее. До сих пор при использовании этого метода, рассчитывая излучение сверхновой, нсобхолимо было предполагать, что звезда излучает как абсолютно черное тело, однако построенная Вагонером модель атмосферы сверхновой делает это ограничение несущественным. Недавно он проверил свою модель на относительно близкой сверхновой и обнаружил, что предсказанный теорией спектр звезды хорошо согласуется с наблюдаемым. Метод Вагонера тоже имеет свои недостатки. Во-первых, как и в методе эталонных источников, требуется обнаружить сверхновую и провести наблюдения за короткий промежуток времени — примерно месяц, — в течение которого она имеет максимальный блеск. Во-вторых, требуется очень точно измерить полный поток излучения зволы. Олнако при наблюдениях с помошью наземных телескопов трудно отделить излучение далекой сверхновой от фонового излучения галактики, в которой она расположена; дело в том, что рассеяние света земной атмосферой приводит к размыванию изображения. Кроме того, атмосфера Земли не пропускает ультрафиолетового излучения, которое могло бы лать дополнительную информацию. Чтобы использовать этот метол лля определения постоянной Хаббла и темпов замедления расширения Вселенной, необходим космический телескоп, который намечено спустить п 1986 г. В настоящее время Вагонеру надо убедить НАСА в гом, что с помощью его метола можно решить вопрос о будущем Вселенной.

Древнейшие китайские колокола. Во время празднования 35-й годовщины образования Китайской Народной Республики в пекинском павильоне Хуай-Жень собравшиеся услышали мелодичный звон колоколов, который впервые раздался 2400 лет назад. Это обстоятельство заставляет пересмотреть некоторые сложившиеся представления в истории музыки. Издаваемые колоколами звуки не оставляют сомнений в том, что в Китае уже в древности использовались такой же звукоряд и такие же методы точной настройки, как и в наши дни.

 

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