Эксперименты

Наши эксперименты были направлены на изучение одного игнорируемого бихевиористами умственного процесса; при этом мы намеревались удовлетворить их требованию оперировать только с объективными количественными данными. Первые шаги в исследовании пространственного воображения, предпринятые в 1971 г. Р. Шепардом совместно с аспиранткой Д. Меилер, удовлетворяли этому критерию. Каждая экспериментальная серия считалась объективной в том смысле, что реакции испытуемого на стимул могли быть объективно оценены как правильные или ошибочные; результаты одновременно носили и количественный характер, поскольку фиксируемой переменной было время, необходимое испытуемому для ответа.

Перед испытуемыми стояла задача сравнения построенных вычислительной машиной рисунков, которые предъявлялись парами. Каждый рисунок изображал трехмерный объект, состоящий из десяти кубиков, грани которых соединялись так, что образующаяся фигура была похожа на рычаг, изогнутый в трех местах под прямым углом (см. рисунок на с. 59). Одни пары рнсунков-стимулов изображали одинаковые объекты, по-разному ориентированные в пространстве. Другие пары, чередующиеся с первыми в случайном порядке, представляли объекты, различающиеся между собой как по форме, так и по ориентации. Это были энантиоморфные структуры, т.е. такие структуры, одна из которых является зеркальным отражением другой (подобно правой и левой руке). В каждой серии в течение точно контролируемого времени на задней стенке тахистоскопа, представляющего собой темный ящик, испытуемому предъявлялся зрительный стимул: экспериментатор вставлял в тахистоскоп пару рисунков и нажимал кнопку устройства для их освещения, одновременно включая секундомер. Испытуемый должен был как можно быстрее сравнить изображения и нажать один из двух рычагов; правый, если изображенные объекты имели, по его мнению, одинаковую форму, и левый, если он считал, что они различаются. Одновременно останавливался секундомер, показывающий затраченное на сравнение время.

 

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