Электрический орган

Для дальнейшего развития исследований ацетилхолина и механизмов его высвобождения следовало подобрать ткань более удобную для экспериментов, чем мозг грызунов. В мозговой ткани лишь малая часть нервных окончаний относится к холинергическим. Более гомогенный материал в принципе можно было бы получить из областей контакта между нервами и мышечными клетками, так как все мотонейроны имеют холинер- гические синапсы. Однако от всей массы мышечного волокна нервные окончания в таких контактах составляют очень небольшую долю.

И тут оказалось, что прекрасным источником материала для изучения холинергической синаптической передачи может быть электрический скат Torpedo. У каждой особи имеется па

ра специализированных органов, называемых электрическими, способных генерировать кратковременные электрические разряды, которыми рыба пользуется для парализации добычи и для зашиты.

Электрический орган хорошо подходит для экспериментов с ацетилхо- лином, поскольку в нем сосредоточено огромное количество синапсов, которые, как показали в 1940 г. А. Фес- сард, В. Фельдберг и Д. Нахманзон, работавшие на морской биологической станции в Аркашоне (Франция), являются холинергическими. Электрический орган, по существу, представляет собой специфически измененнную нервно-мышечную систему, и механизм передачи нервного импульса в нем во многом такой же, как в обычной системе. К примеру, в электрическом органе тоже регистрируются миниатюрные и субминцатюрные потенциалы концевой пластинки. Вместе с тем экспериментальные препараты, полученные из электрического органа, не содержат ни усложняющих исследование сократительных структур, характерных для мышечных клеток, ни сложных нейронных цепей и гетерогенного набора нейромедиаторов, которые свойственны центральной нервной системе.

 

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