Европейский центр ядерных исследований, Швейцария

Трудность состоит в том, что «адрон с наибольшей массой», возможно, вовсе не существует. По- видимому, число типов нейронов экспоненциально растет с энергией. Если эта тенденция продолжится бесконечно, то дальнейшее нагревание никогда не поднимет температуру вещества много выше той, которая была уже достигнута в столкновениях тяжелых ионов. В природе, по-видимому, может существовать абсолютный предел для температуры. Эта идея была высказана Р.Хагедорном из ЦЕРНа (Европейский центр ядерных исследований, Швейцария). По его оценкам, максимальная температура составляет около 1,5 ■ 1012 °С. Эта температура не намного выше той, которая уже наблюдалась в экспериментах с тяжелыми ионами.

ПОСЛЕДНЯЯ из возможных фаз ядерной материи, которую мы здесь рассмотрим, аналогична плазме

заряженных частиц. В этой фазе нуклоны и более тяжелые адроны теряют свою индивидуальность. Вещество состоит из кварков и частиц, которые удерживают их вместе, — глюонов: образуется кварк- глюонная плазма, или квагма.

При создании обыкновенной плазмы в лаборатории газ нагревают до такой степени, когда столкновения атомов станут достаточно сильными, чтобы «выбить» электроны из их внешних оболочек. Эти электроны становятся свободными и могут двигаться по всему объему плазмы. Есть другой способ достижения такой же цели, он осуществляется внутри звезд. Исключительно сильное сжатие газа сближает атомы настолько, что их внешние электронные оболочки начинают перекрываться. В этих условиях электроны становятся «ничьими» и могут свободно двигаться от атома к атому (точно так же в твердом металле «море» электронов распределено между всеми атомами).

 

 

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