Физиология и медицина

В своем автобиографии Ф. Вернет, лауреат Нобелевской премии 1960 г. по физиологии и медицине, назвал Нильса Кая Ерне «самым умным из ныне живущих иммунологов». В октябре 1984 г. Ерне вместе с двумя другими иммунологами был удостоен Нобелевской премии. Комитет по Нобелевским премиям признал Ерне «крупным теоретиком в области иммунологии», а разработку метода моноклональных антител, осуществленную двумя другими лауреатами — Цезарем Мильштейном и Георгом Кёлером, — «одним из самых важных методических достижений в медицинской биологии в 70-е годы». Ерне, датчанин по происхождению, до того как стал директором Базельского института иммунологии в Швейцарии, работал в США и ФРГ. Им предложены три теоретические концепции. Его теория образования антител, опубликованная в 1955 г., вошла в современное представление об иммунной системе — системе, защищающей организм от разнообразных и многочисленных чужеродных веществ, с большей частью которых он ранее не сталкивался. На поверхности любого антигена (вируса, бактерии или другой чужеродной частииы), внедряющегося в организм, имеются компоненты, называемые антигенными детерминантами. Иммунная система организма реагирует на них размножением специфических антител, которые связываются с антигеном, с чего и начинается действие механизма его нейтрализации. В 50-е годы были общеприняты теории, предполагавшие, что сам чужеродный антиген выдает информацию, на основании которой образуются специфические антитела, способные связываться с ним. По теории Ерне, не внедрение антигена есть сигнал для новообразования определенных антител: антиген избирательно взаимодействует с «комплементарным» ему антителом из огромного запаса уже существующих. Работы Бернета подтвердили это: он показал, что антиген действительно «отбирает» определенный клон иммунокомпетентных клеток, а именно В-лимфоцитов, уже запрограммированных на вырабатывание антител нужного вила.

Вторая теория Ерне дает объяснение того, как в вилочковой железе созревают другие клетки иммунной системы, Т-лимфоциты, и как они «научаются» отличать «свое» от «чужого».

И наконец, третья теория Ерне, разработанная им в 1973 г., утверждает, что иммунную систему следует рассматривать как саморегулирующуюся «функциональную сеть» взаимодействующих антител и лимфоцитов.

 

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