Горячие точки Земли

Струи горячих пород, поднимающихся из глубин мантии, являются ключевым звеном в плитотектоническом цикле. На движущихся плитах они оставляют следы в виде вулканов, поднятий и срединно-океанических плато

Из глубин мантии к поверхности Земли, вздымая кору и образуя вулканы, медленно поднимаются, точно по узким каналам, горячие породы. Эти мантийные струи (плюмажи) существуют и под континентами, и под океанами как в центре движущихся плит, которые слагают внешнюю оболочку Земли, так и на срединно-океанических хребтах, где две плиты отодвигаются друг от друга. Следы, которые они оставляют на поверхности, накладываются на основные структуры, создаваемые в результате движения плит. Вулканические извержения и землетрясения, связанные с мантийными струями, происходят вдали от границ плит, которые представляют собой места наибольшей активности подобного рола. Кроме того, поднимающиеся струи формируют аномально широкие вздутия на океанском дне и на континентах. Эти локализованные области геологической активности называют горячими точками.

Мантийные струи практически не смешаются, так что литосферные плиты дрейфуют над ними. При прохождении плиты над горячей точкой часто возникает след в виде различаемых поверхностных структур, простирание которых указывает на направление перемещения плиты. Если плита океаническая, то следом горячей точки могут быть вулканический хребет или цепочка вулканических островов и подводных гор, поднимающихся над соседними участками

дна. Наиболее наглядный пример — Гавайские острова: именно их посещение послужило толчком для создания в 1963 г. Дж. Вильсоном из Торонтского университета концепции горячих точек.

Вильсон заметил, что к западу от острова Гавайи острова сменяются атоллами и банками, что указывает на возрастающую степень эрозии, а потому и на более древний возраст. Аналогичные наблюдения были сделаны американским геологом Дж.Дэна более века назад, но Вильсон был первым, кто в увеличении возраста островов увидел свидетельство дрейфа континентов. Он предположил, что цепочка островов образовалась в результате перемещения пластины земной коры на запад над «лавовым соплом», которое в настоящее время находится непосредственно под островом Гавайи (на восточном окончании цепочки). Это предположение было высказано в то время, когда учебники (включая и тот, что был выпущен тремя годами ранее самим Вильсоном с соавторами) упоминали о дрейфе континентов лишь как об интригующей идее, выдвинутой в 20-х годах, но затем вызвавшей к себе недоверие.

За истекшие два десятилетия эта идея вновь получила распространение как составная часть теории тектоники плит.

 

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