Грохот залпов

Грохот залпов, разносившийся по палубам, был настолько мощным, что иногда матросы навсегда лишались слуха. Раскаленные докрасна ядра закатывали в жерла орудий при помощи специальных ручных приспособлений. После каждого залпа откатившуюся раскаленную пушку надо было вручную устанавливать на прежнее место. В сплошном дыму от орудий пушкари часто, не видя откатывающейся назад пушки, попадали пол ее колеса.

Скопление мошной боевой техники на борту испанских навио не снижало способности этого типа судов выдерживать ближний бой в течение длительного времени. «Сантисима Тринидад», например, являлся флагманским кораблем испанцев во время блокады Гибралтара в 1779—1782 гг., сражался у мыса Сент-Винсент в 1797 г., а также при Трафальгаре. Двойные и даже тройные залпы с борта английских кораблей не смогли потопить судна. И хотя победа осталась за Англией, большая огневая мощь испанцев нанесла английскому флоту большой урон.

БЫЛО бы несправедливо говорить только о боевых подвигах испанских навио, не упомянув об их огромной роли в области географических исследований и открытий. Организованные Карлом 111 кругосветные экспедиции были не менее важны лля науки, чем путешествия Джеймса Кука и Джорджа Ванкувера. Целью этих экспедиций было изучение биологии морей, получение океанографических данных и совершенствование техники судовожде

ния. Капитаны кораблей, а также ботаники, географы и картографы, принимавшие участие в плаваниях, составляли подробные отчеты о своих наблюдениях. Многие испанские капитаны, участвовавшие в Трафальгарском сражении, были не только искусными военными стратегами, но и отличными штурманами, исследователями, картографами и математиками. Например, имя капитана Дионисио Алькала Гальяно, славного навигатора, увековечено в географических названиях на картах Чили и Канады. Бригадир дон Космэ Дамиан Чуррука был известен не только трудами в области навигации и математики, но и исследованиями западного побережья Южной Америки. Как и для адмирала Нельсона, Трафальгарское сражение стало последним в жизни этих двух капитанов. Вокруг тела, которое колеблется в жидкости, образуются краевые волны, расходящиеся от тела как спицы в колесе.



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