Колебания песка

Наконец, одно из удивительнейших охотничьих умений скорпиона состоит в его способности обнаруживать жертву, зарывшуюся в песок, которую он выкапывает с помощью больших клешней, называемых педипальпами. Безусловно, не зрение, не слух и не обоняние помогают скорпиону находить закопавшееся насекомое. И тем не менее было нелегко ФИЛИП X. БРОУНЕЛ

привыкнуть к мысли о том, что скорпион может обнаруживать своих жертв по вызываемым ими колебаниям песка. Биологи, изучавшие поведение животных, давно уже предполагали, что многие из них реагируют на колебания субстрата, но считали, что они не способны определят ь причину колебаний и место, откуда те исходят, как люди не могут определять эпицентр землетрясения по ощущаемым ими подземным толчкам. Представление об отсутствии у животных способности извлекать полезную информацию из колебаний субстрата противоречит тому, что многие животные обладают высокой чувствительностью к звуковым волнам, распространяющимся в воздухе или в воде. В этих средах животное устанавливает источник сигнала с помощью специальных обособленных от тела рецепторов, воспринимая и анализируя малейшие изменения во времени поступления стимулов или в их амплитуде. В твердых субстратах механические колебания распространяются существенно быстрее и характеризуются значительно большей длиной волны. Поэтому различия во времени поступления и в амплитуде сигналов, приходящих к разным рецепторам животного, очень малы, и ешс недавно исследователи полагали, что нервная система их не воспринимает. Песок казался особенно неподходящим субстратом для передачи информации, поскольку механические колебания в нем быстро затухают. В связи с этим «охотничьи успехи» скорпиона выглядели загадкой. Вот почему хотелось подробно изучить его поведение. Мы начали с наблюдений в природе, а впоследствии, чтобы разобраться в механизме, с помощью которого скорпион отыскивает добычу, и понять, какие свойства песка делают возможной работу этого механизма, поставили опыты в контролируемых лабораторных условиях. Песчаный скорпион водится на юге пустыни Мохаве. Это местообитание — одна из самых жарких и сухих экосистем Северной Америки. В летние дни температура на поверхности дюн часто превышает 70°С, а относительная влажность бывает близка к нулю.

 

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