Колокола

Колокола, зазвучавшие в день праздника, представляют собой копии. И тем не менее они обладают звучанием оригиналов, которые были найдены в 1978 г. при раскопках гробницы Йи, правителя древнего царства Цинь (территория нынешней провинции Хубэй), умершего около 433 г. до н.э. 65 хорошо сохранившихся колоколов имеют разный размер — от нескольких сантиметров до полутора метров в высоту. Изящно выполненные золотой инкрустацией надписи содержат подробные сведения о музыкальных особенностях каждого колокола. Самые большие колокола представляют собой неповторимые произведения искусства. По свидетельству Э. Макклейна, заслуженного профессора музыки Нью- Йоркского университета, в те времена, когда были отлиты эти колокола, «на Западе самыми крупными были колокола чуть больше 20 см». В отличие от европейских и индийских колоколов, круглых в поперечном сечении, китайские колокола, если смотреть на них снизу, веретенообразные. За счет этого каждый колокол со снятым языком при ударах по разным местам издает два звука существенно различной высоты. Конструктивно колокола выполнены так, что звук быстро затихает, и эта особенность позволяет использовать их в качестве музыкальных инструментов.

Какие мелолии исполнялись на колоколах при дворе правителя Йи, мы, конечно, не знаем, но звучание колоколов дает представление о музыке той поры. Полный набор колоколов перекрывает более пяти октав — от нижнего звука виолончели до верхнего звука флейты. На значительном интервале этого диапазона звуки, издаваемые разными колоколами, соответствуют современной хроматической гамме из 12   тонов (которой отвечают семь белых и пять черных клавиш фортепьяно). До сих пор многие специалисты считали, что гамма из 12 тонов стала известна китайским музыкантам в более позднюю эпоху — спустя несколько столетий после того времени, к которому относится появление этих колоколов. Макклейн считает, что мастера, изготовившие колокола, опирались на две различные звуковые системы при определении интервалов между нотами. На Западе эти системы известны как пифагоров строй и чистый строй. В обоих случаях относительные частоты звуков звукоряда выражаются отношениями целых чисел. Древним грекам были знакомы обе системы. Макклейн полагает, что чистый строй был создан в Вавилоне. В наборе китайских колоколов оба музыкальных строя выдержаны с поразительной точностью. За счет этого, поясняет Макклейн, интервалы между отдельными звуками настолько правильны, что «звучание некоторых октав столь же чистое, как в современных музыкальных инструментах».

 

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