Конечную порцию энергии

Но между электронами, связанными в атоме, и кварками, связанными в адроне, есть важное различие. Сообщив электрону конечную порцию энергии, его можно оторвать от атома, а притягивающие силы между кварками нельзя преодолеть, какую бы высокую энергию мы на это ни затратили. Эти силы неограниченно возрастают по мере увеличения расстояния между кварками. В результате кварки в квагме не могут стать истинно свободными: они просто получают «клетку» побольше. При создании квагмы цель состоит не в том, чтобы «растащить» кварки, а в том, чтобы сжать теснее адроны (как при втором методе создания обычной плазмы, описанном выше). Когда адроны настолько сблизятся, что начнут перекрываться, составляющие их кварки смогут «блуждать» по всему ядерному объему.

Необходимую плотность адронов можно получить, если сжимать ядерное вещество до тех пор, пока нуклоны не сблизятся друг с другом. Однако очень сильное нагревание также можно использовать для создания квагмы, хотя и не за счет отрыва кварков в сильных соударениях, как это происходит с электронами в высокотемпературной плазме. Здесь механизм намного тоньше: повышение температуры вызывает обильное рождение пионов и других адронов, которые заполняют все пространство между нуклонами.

НАСКОЛЬКО плотно надо упаковать нуклоны или адроны, чтобы получилась квагма? Какова должна быть энергия пучка, чтобы достичь этой плотности в столкновении тяжелых ионов? Мы и другие исследователи рассчитали эти величины разными методами. Простейший из них основан на

предположении, что внутри адрона кварки движутся свободно. Таким образом, если каплю ядерного вещества сжать до плотности вещества в адроне, то кварки должны стать свободными. Критическая плотность, рассчитанная таким способом, в 4—8 раз больше плотности обычной ядерной материи. Такую степень сжатия вполне можно достичь. В экспериментах на действующих сейчас ускорителях при энергии пучка 1 ГэВ на нуклон, возможно, создаются плотности, в 3—5 раз больше нормальной.

 

 

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