Корректировка ошибок

Как правило, плотность записи в звуковых системах значительно выше, чем в обычных компьютерах. Поэтому для обнаружения и исправления ошибок применяются очень сложные методы. Поскольку для каждого вида записи характерен свой тип ошибок, то существует несколько способов их коррекции. Данные, записываемые методом импульсно-кодовой модуляции, особенно чувствительны к потере разрядов. Такая чувствительность объясняется тем, что отдельные биты соответствуют различным порядкам величины и, следовательно, вполне определенным единицам информации. Чем больший порядок представлен в потерянном разряде, тем сильнее искажается выходной сигнал. В этом случае при воспроизведении слышится сильный «щелчок».

Коррекция ошибок выполняется путем формирования новых слов и их смешения с исходными словами данных. Таким образом, новые слова подвержены влиянию тех же источников ошибок, что и исходные. Появление ошибок нельзя исключить полностью, поэтому требуется такой способ коррекции, который обеспечивает достаточно малую вероятность их сохранения.

Для проверки записанной информации на наличие ошибок ее временно заносят в динамическую буферную память. Объем буфера должен быть достаточным для размещения в ней как проверяемого слова данных, так и слов, вводимых для проверки. Кроме того, алгоритмы, применяемые для поиска и исправления ошибок, должны выполняться достаточно быстро, с тем чтобы исправленные данные выводились из буфера со скоростью, приемлемой с точки зрения режима записи.

В основе большинства способов коррекции лежит комбинация нескольких приемов. Простейший из них заключается в повторной записи каждого слова. Недостатки такого приема очевидны — удваивается требуемая емкость памяти, и, кроме того, если не делать некоторых допущений, то невозможно определить, какое из двух слов не содержит ошибки. Можно, например,

допустить, что за счет дефекта записывающей среды сразу утратится целый «кусок» данных, и в результате ошибки будут сконцентрированы в одном месте. Такое явление, называемое групповыми ошибками, как правило, возникает именно из-за повреждения носителя. Если в процессе записи слова и их дубли перемешиваются (такая ситуация называется чередованием), анализ ошибок покажет, что одно слово из каждой «поврежденной» пары обычно располагается по соседству с другими словами, имеющими такое же повреждение.

 

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