Крупномасштабные исследования

Он добавляет, однако, что многие относительно простые задачи, решение которых может оказаться весьма полезным, игнорируются: «Крупномасштабные исследования — это замечательно. Но для того чтобы программа космических исследований была сбалансированной и результативной, нужны не только они».

Р. Джиаккони из Университета Джонса Гопкинса, руководитель работ по созданию орбитального телескопа, также высказывает мнение о том, что большие программы связаны с определенным риском, но в то же время, как он считает, некоторые научные проблемы нельзя решить без них. В качестве примера Джиаккони приводит ускорители элементарных частиц, без которых в настоящее время не может обойтись физика высоких энергий. Он полагает, что астрономия, так же как и физика, уже достигла такого уровня, когда ее дальнейшее развитие тоже порой требует использования дорогостоящей аппаратуры.

Дж. Беггс, возглавляющий административную службу НАСА, говорит, что доводы, которые выдвигают противники больших программ, «можно признать справедливыми, но по мере того, как запас наших знаний становится все более обширным мы испытываем потребность во все более сложном и дорогостоящем оборудовании».

В то же время, добавляет Беггс, «имеется немало таких научных проблем, решение которых не требует больших затрат. И нам следует научиться решать их наилучшим образом; нужно, чтобы ученые имели возможность исследовать космическое пространство с помощью оперативных и относительно не дорогостоящих средств».

НАСА подвергается критике не только за свою приверженность к обширным научным программам. В докладе, составленном в ноябре 1984 г. Управлением научно-технической оценки при конгрессе, содержится настоятельная рекомендация НАСА и федеральному правительству тщательно пересмотреть всю структуру существующей программы космических исследований.

Первоначально имелось ввиду подготовить доклад о результатах изучения проекта НАСА по созданию космической станции. Как следует из выводов, сделанных Управлением, пока нельзя судить о том, будет ли способствовать космическая станция, которую собирается построить НАСА, достижению национальных целей в освоении космоса, поскольку сами цели пока еще не определены. В докладе констатируется что не далек тот день, когда изучение космического пространства получит бурное развитие и будет во все больших масштабах служить коммерческим целям. Поэтому уже сейчас необходимо решить, какие цели ставит перед собой американское общество и какую роль в этом следует отвести НАСА.

 

 

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