Мантийные струи

Астеносфера постоянно разрушается за счет охлаждения и присоединения се к основанию литосферы; граница между этими двумя слоями является, по существу, температурной границей. Не пополняемая мантийными струями астеносфера должна была бы вскоре исчезнуть, а движение плит прекратиться.

Следует подчеркнуть, что эта «модель мантийных струй» конвективной циркуляции в мантии является именно моделью, поскольку непосредственно мантийные струи не наблюдались. Глубокая мантия может быть исследована только с помощью анализа сейсмических волн, возникающих при землетрясениях, но пока разрешающая способность такого метода недостаточна для того, чтобы выявить мантийные струи; последние могут иметь в диаметре всего несколько сотен километров и слабо отличаться от окружающего материала по температуре и плотности (т.е. свойствам, которые определяют скорость сейсмических волн).

Имеются, однако, серьезные косвенные доказательства существования мантийных струй в глубокой мантии. Спутниковые измерения гравитационного поля Земли показали, что горячим точкам отвечают области аномально высоких значений силы тяжести и, следовательно, избытка масс; избыток масс может быть обусловлен обширным вздутием поверхности, вызванным поднимающимися мантийными струями. Другие доказательства были получены при геохимических исследованиях базальтов, изливающихся из вулканов горячих точек. По сравнению с базальтами, драгированными со срединно-океанических хребтов, эти породы обогащены летучими элементами и рядом других элементов, таких, как калий, которые «несовместимы» с минералами обычных мантийных пород.

Они содержат также аномально большие количества изотопов, образованных при радиоактивном распаде. Различия в составе лают основание полагать, что лавы горячих точек образуются из пород, поднимающихся с глубин ниже астеносферы, которая питает океанические центры спрединга. Согласно модели мантийных струй, когда материал из глубокой мантии течет в астеносферу, часть его, обогащенная летучими и несовместимыми элементами, плавится и достигает поверхности через вулканы горячих точек.

Современные успехи в сейсмологии вселяют надежду, что когда-нибудь исследователи смогут непосредственно «увидеть» мантийные струи (см. Д. Андерсон и А.Дзевонский «Сейсмическая томография». — «В мире науки», № 12, 1984, с. 16—25). В частности, можно думать, что предлагаемая новая глобальная сеть сейсмографов улучшит разрешающую способность сейсмических исследований до такой степени, что появится возможность определять размеры мантийных струй и глубину их корней.




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