Метод Меррифилда

В ряде лабораторий по методу Меррифилда получают синтетические вакцины против таких вирусных заболеваний, как грипп, бешенство, гепатит. При этом синтезируется та часть белка оболочки вирусной частицы, которая обладает антигенными свойствами и поэтому вызывает в организме человека или животного образование антител. Синтетические вакцины выгодно отличаются от получаемых обычным путем естественных вакцин (представляющих собой препараты убитых или ослабленных вирусов), которые могут сохранять вирулентность.

Другая область применения твердофазного химического синтеза пептидов — производство нужных в медицине биологически активных соединений, в числе которых гипофизарный гормон АКТГ (гормон роста) и тиреоидный гормон кальцитонин. В лаборатории Меррнфилда синтезирован глюкагон — белок, продуцируемый поджелудочной железой. Этот гормон повышает содержание сахара в крови, ускоряя расщепление гликогена в печени. Следующий этап работы — синтез аналогов глюкагона для получения его ингибиторов. Такие вещества должны конкурировать с глюкагоном за связывание с соответствующими активными центрами на печеночных клетках, но не будут стимулировать образование глюкозы, поэтому с их помощью можно было бы снижать уровень сахара в крови у больных диабетом и уменьшить необходимую налогу инсулина. Метол Меррифилда пригоден и для ра (работки новых лекарств. Например, в его лаборатории исследовали амафилатоксин СЗа. Этот полипептид состоит из 77 аминокислот; он имеет значение в развитии воспалительного процесса и других явлений, сопровождающих ответ иммунной системы организма на инфекцию. Синтезирован ряд пептидов — отрезков последовательности токсина; оказалось, что активной частью молекулы являются последние 5 аминокислот. Задача теперь в том, чтобы синтезировать препарат, который бы нейтрализовал СЗа и тем самым оказывал бы противовоспалительное действие. Такое лекарство нужно при астме, ревматоидном артрите и родственных им заболеваниях.



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