Миграция населения в центральные города

В других странах, где промышленность развита слабо, масштабы миграции населения в крупные города могут не зависеть от состояния экономики. Например, экономика африканских стран, расположенных к югу от Сахары, развивается замедленными темпами, но миграция населения в центральные города в этих странах остается на высоком уровне. Вероятно, это явление объясняется тем, что производство продуктов питания на душу населения в этих африканских странах падает, а продукты, импортируемые из других стран, доставляются в города. Поскольку транспортная система, связывающая центральные районы с периферией, развита слабо, лишь незначительная часть ввозимых из-за границы продуктов попадает в отдаленные населенные пункты. До тех пор пока уровень сельскохозяйственного производства в этих странах будет падать, масштабы миграции населения будут оставаться значительными.

Пример с африканскими странами, расположенными в районе пустыни Сахара, показывает, что зависимость территориальной концентрации населения от общего экономического роста в стране может быть изменена за счет других факторов. В Арабской Республике Египет, например, существенную роль играют факторы, не связанные с общим уровнем экономического развития. АРЕ по уровню экономического развития занимает промежуточное положение, и при прочих равных условиях в этой стране тоже наблюдалось бы быстрое увеличение концентрации населения. Более того, темпы экономического роста в период после второй мировой войны, вероятно, были ускоренными. В течение последних нескольких лет доход на душу населения в АРЕ ежегодно увеличивается на 4%. Несмотря на столь высокие темпы экономического

развития, относительный прирост населения в Каире в период с 1966 по 1981 г. резко снизился.

Явление, характерное для Каира, скорее всего, объясняется не влиянием экономического роста, а высокой плотностью населения в столице. В период между 1947 и 1981 гг. население Каира выросло с 3,6 млн. до более 10 млн. человек. Каир стал одним из самых плотно населенных городов мира. Действительно, столица АРЕ стала настолько большой и густонаселенной, что те преимущества, которые стимулируют размещение промышленных объектов в центральном районе, сводятся на нет. В частности, в условиях перенаселенности города, заторов на транспортных магистралях и загрязненной окружающей среды, которые характерны для Каира, издержки предпринимателей резко возрастают.

ПЕРУ, Чили и АРЕ — это страны, в которых приток населения в центральные районы упал за счет снижения притягательной силы последних.

 

 

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  113. Today, I went to the beach front with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.» She put the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is totally off topic but I had to tell someone!

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