В каждой серии предъявлялся один из восьми многоугольников — либо в том положении, в котором его показывали на этапе обучения, либо повернутый на 60° или на кратное 60° число относительно этой ориентации. Испытуемому предлагалось определить, какой — нормальный или зеркальный — вариант фигуры представлен. Для этого испытуемый должен был, по нашему предположению, мысленно поворачивать многоугольник до тех пор, пока он совпадет или не совпадет с эталонной формой, хранящейся в памяти, и известной из предварительного эксперимента. В случае совпадения испытуемый нажимал правую кнопку («нормальный»), в случае несовпадения — левую («зеркальный»).

Как и в эксперименте с парными стимулами, время реакции в данном случае возрастало пропорционально углу поворота с тем лишь различием, что поворот определялся относительно тестовой фигуры, предъявлявшийся на предварительном этапе, а не относительно одновременно предъявляемой фигуры. Нормальные варианты тестовых многоугольников испытуемые узнавали на 60 мс быстрее, чем зеркальные. Прежде всего, вероятно, испытуемые сравнивали трансформированную тестовую конфигурацию с образом ее нормального варианта, находившимся в памяти. Это позволяло быстро отмечать совпадение, но требовало дополнительного времени для выявления зеркального варианта, если тестовая конфигурация объекта не совпадала с ее нормальным вариантом.

Крутизна функции времени реакции в обоих случаях оказалась, однако, идентичной. Средняя скорость мысленного вращения в этом эксперименте составила 450° в секунду, т.е. значительно больше, чем скорость вращения. зафиксированная в эксперименте с парными стимулами и равная 53° в секунду. Оперирование образами фигур, предъявляемых по одной в каждый момент, очевидно, обеспечивает более быстрые ответные реакции за счет того, что испытуемые концентрируют свое внимание на одиночном стимуле. Несмотря на количественные различия, результаты этого эксперимента были аналогичны результатам, полученным ранее.

После того как было установлено, что выполнение теста с одиночными двумерными фигурами требует мысленного вращения, сходного с тем, которое имеет место при сравнении двух фигур, мы смогли модифицировать методику с целью более тщательного подтверждения гипотезы, согласно которой мысленное вращение представляет собой аналог вращательных операций, осуществляемых в физическом мире.



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