Напряжение

Напряжение, характеризующее амплитуду сигнала в момент преобразования, хранится в аналоговой форме в течение времени, достаточного для измерения и приписывания числового значения, соответствующего величине этого напряжения. Такая операция называется квантованием. При каждой выборке формируется новое число; все они образуют непрерывный ряд данных, которыми может оперировать любая цифровая система.

Для восстановления сигнала данные подаются на цифро-аналоговый преобразователь с такой же частотой, с какой производилась выборка. Цифроаналоговый преобразователь выдает напряжение, соответствующее значению слова данных, и хранит его до поступления нового слова. Получаемый в результате сигнал является точной копией исходного колебания.

В случае неадекватной выборки возможны два типа искажения сигнала. Олин связан с частотой выборки, второй — с квантованием. В том и другом случае искажения могут быть уменьшены путем более частых выборок, но при этом потребуются более сложные системы обработки данных. Вообще говоря, полностью избавиться от искажений невозможно, поскольку аналоговый сигнал описывается непрерывной функцией амплитуды от времени, а любое цифровое представление должно быть дискретным. Однако после преобразования сигнала в цифровую форму его можно передавать или копировать любое число раз, причем в него уже не будут вноситься шумы и искажения — их останется столько, сколько было в момент преобразования.

Первый тип искажений обусловлен малой частотой выборки. Если выборка производится недостаточно часто, то в течение интервала выборки амплитуда сигнала может измениться на величину, превышающую один квант. (Квант — это наименьшая величина ступеньки, используемая для описания аналогового сигнала при его дискретизации.) Другими словами, сигнал изменяется слишком быстро; система не успеет обеспечить его точной записи. При восстановлении сигнала эти изменения остаются неучтенными и, следовательно, часть информации утрачивается. Столь быстрые изменения амплитуды вызываются теми составляющими звукового сигнала, частота которых выше половины частоты выборки. Наличие таких составляющих приводит к появлению в восстановленном сигнале гармоник, частота которых равна частоте выборки за вычетом исходной частоты. Данное явление называется наложением спектра. «Пропущенные» при выборке составляющие воспроизводятся как совершенно новые, не являющиеся гармониками исходного сигнала.

 

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