Непрерывное движение плит

В настоящее время известно, что земная кора впаяна в жесткие литосферные плиты, мощность которых составляет 100—150 км под континентами и примерно вдвое меньше под океанами. Непрерывным движением плит над частично расплавленной астеносферой (слоем мантии, располагающимся до глубины примерно 200 км) объясняется эволюция океанских бассейнов и образование горных хребтов. Основная задача современной геофизики состоит в том, чтобы понять,так эти поверхностные процессы связаны с медленным конвективным движением горячих пород в подстилающей мантии. Горячие точки — важный элемент этой конвекции.

Действительно, если бы подъем материала в мантийных струях прекратился, то плиты приостановили бы свое движение. В конечном счете энергию, которая приводит плиты в движение, дает тепло, выделяющееся при распаде радиоактивных элементов глубоко в мантии. Мантийные струи обеспечивают эффективную передачу тепла к поверхности. Эта их способность определяется свойствами мантийных пород: их вязкость, или сопротивление к переносу, резко уменьшается при относительно небольшом увеличении температуры (примерно на 100 °С) или в присутствии летучих веществ, таких, как вода. Менее вязкий материал, образующийся в результате изменения температуры или увеличения содержания

летучих элементов, имеет тенденцию скапливаться и подниматься к поверхности по узким каналам, подобно тому как нефть поднимается из подземного резервуара по буровым скважинам.

Было бы, однако, ошибочно утверждать, что мантийные струи приводят плиты в движение. Скорее всего это две различные составляющие конвективной циркуляции. Когда плиты на срединно-океаническом хребте расходятся в противоположные стороны (т.е. имеет место спрединг), расплавленные породы поднимаются из астеносферы к оси спрединга и формируют океаническую кору; при движении от хребта новая литосфера остывает и в конечном итоге разрушается в океанических желобах, где две плиты сталкиваются и одна из них погружается глубоко в мантию. Мантийные струи питаются за счет глубокой мантии. В свою очередь они

закачивают вещество, разогретое радиоактивным распадом, в астеносферу, которая служит источником материала для нового океанического ложа и предоставляет плитам возможность скользить по горячему жидкому слою.

 

 

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