Новые корневые волоски

Вместо того чтобы расстилаться, корни необратимо

переплетаются, и на деформированных таким образом корнях новые корневые волоски не образуются даже после удаления контейнера. Когда переплетенные корни вырастают, на них возникают «ущемления»; деревья с деформированной корневой системой плохо растут, слабо впитывают воду из почвы и поэтому страдают от засухи, а также неустойчивы к ветру. Проблема решается благодаря использованию горшочков с проницаемыми стен

ками; часть корней, вышедшая за пределы горшочка, отмирает на воздухе, но внутри образуются корневые волоски.

Корневая система окружена богатой микрофлорой, включающей грибы, микоризу и многочисленные бактерии. Микоризу образуют грибы- симбионты, которые живут либо снаружи, формируя «муфточки» вокруг корневых волосков, либо внутри тканей корня. Грибы поставляют растению различные вещества и в некоторых случаях совершенно необходимы для его выживания. Микрофлора часто видоспецифична, однако некоторые грибы могут сосуществовать с различными видами. Бактерии ризосферы также специфичны и тоже принимают участие 8 питании дерева, например снабжают его азотом; для того чтобы рост таких бактерий не был подавлен предшествующей микрофлорой, прикорневые комки предварительно стерилизуют, а затем вводят в них нужные грибы и бактерии. Введение микрофлоры, в частности микоризация, имеет ряд трудностей, которые в настоящее время преодолеваются. После посадки рост и физиологическое равновесие саженцев зависят от сбалансированности питания и постоянства гидротермических условий. До недавнего времени питание деревьев осуществлялось с помощью питательных растворов, но из-за технических трудностей в настоящее время предпочитают примешивать к субстрату специальные удобрения замедленного действия, выбранные в соответствии с влажностью и температурой. Удобрений замедленного действия выпускают все больше, но надо еще много сделать для того, чтобы они отвечали реальным потребностям деревьев.

Гндротермнческий контроль необходим для того, чтобы избежать температурных и водных поражений. Для ускорения роста саженцы выращиваются в парниках при температуре до 35 °С дозированным поливом или на водяной подушке; в этом случае комки земли с саженцами располагают на фильтре из минерального волокна. За месяц до окончания цикла саженцы выносят из парников и закаляют на воздухе при обильном поливе.

 

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