Объединение взаимодействий

Все, что сейчас известно о фундаментальных взаимодействиях, также указывает на возможность их объединения. Все они могут быть описаны в рамках калибровочных теорий, схожих по своей математической структуре. По-видимому, на очень малых расстояниях интенсивность всех трех взаимодействий выравнивается. Это можно наблюдать только при сверхвысоких энергиях. Электромагнитный заряд становится больше на малых расстояниях, в то время как «сильный», или цветовой, заряд уменьшается. Могут ли все три взаимодействия сравняться при некоторой огромной энергии?

Если все взаимодействия одинаковы по своей природе, то должна исчезать разница между кварками, которые реагируют на сильное взаимодействие, и лептонами, которые на него не реагируют. В простейшем варианте объединенной теории, предложенной в 1974 г. Глэшоу и Г. Джорджи из Гарвардского университета, каждый подобранный друг к другу набор кварков и лептонов приводит к расширенному семейству, содержащему все разнообразные состояния заряда и спина каждой из частиц.

Поражает математическая согласованность предложенной системы строения вещества. Правила в этой схеме таковы, что электрический заряд должен делиться между частицами на части, точно кратные 1/3; тем самым объясняется электрическая нейтральность стабильного вещества. Атом нейтрален, поскольку при группировке кварков по тройкам, как это происходит в ядре, сумма их индивидуальных зарядов точно равна целому числу, совпадающему по величине, но обратному по знаку заряду целого числа электронов. Если бы не существовало связи между лептонами и кварками, то точное соотношение между их зарядами было бы всего лишь замечательным совпадением.

При таком объединении нужна только одна калибровочная теория, чтобы описать все взаимодействия частиц. В калибровочных теориях любая частица из данного набора может быть превращена в любую другую частицу. Мы уже познакомились с превращениями кварков в другие кварки и лептонов в другие лептоны, вызываемые глюонами и промежуточными бозонами. Согласно объединенным теориям, кварки могут превратиться в лептоны, и наоборот. Как и в любой калибровочной теории, такое взаимодействие должно порождаться «силовыми» частицами, бозонами X и Y, существование которых постулируется теорией. Подобно любым другим калибровочным теориям, объединенные теории описывают изменение интенсивности взаимодействия с расстоянием.

 

 

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