Обеспечение равных возможностей в отношении услуг

Однако уменьшение масштабов миграции населения было, видимо, следствием снижения темпов экономического роста в Шри-Ланке. Начиная с 1945 г. объем экономического производства на душу населения в Шри-Ланке увеличивался очень медленно. Ее экономика и теперь остается преимущественно аграрной, и отсутствие концентрации тяжелой индустрии сдерживало миграцию в центр.

Пример Шри-Ланки показывает, почему концентрация населения является одной из важнейших проблем. Сосредоточение капиталовложений в центральных районах, которое порождает миграцию населения с периферии, — наиболее эффективный путь повышения объемов производства. Отказ от концентрации капиталовложений в центральном районе означает снижение темпов экономического роста, а экономический рост, безусловно, является существенным фактором в повышении уровня жизни населения. Поэтому правительства развивающихся стран сталкиваются с нелегкой проблемой выбора. Чтобы облегчить ее решение, необходимы средства, которые сдерживали бы рост центральных районов и в то же время не вели бы к застою в экономике.

Социалистические страны сталкиваются с той же проблемой, но в отличие от развивающихся стран они прибегают чаще всего к другому способу ее решения. В этих странах принимаются определенные меры, направленные на ограничение роста крупнейших городов. И эти меры себя оправдывают. На Кубе, например, доля Гаваны в обшей численности населения страны с 1943 г. сохраняется почти неизменной. В Китае самые низкие темпы прироста населения отмечаются в наиболее крупных городах — Пекине, Шанхае и их окрестностях.

Правительственные меры по регулированию переселения людей в центральные районы сами по себе не гарантируют сохранения демографического равновесия. В этом отношении характерен пример Индонезии. В 1970 г. губернатор Джакарты объявил столицу «закрытым городом». Однако десятилетие спустя приток населения в район Джакарты был самым высоким по сравнению со всеми предыдущими периодами. Вместо того чтобы предотвратить разрастание лености населения в прилегающих к столице районах. В 70-х годах численность населения в окрестностях Джакарты росла очень быстро, точно так же как в окрестностях Мехико, Сеула, Сан-Паулу, Тайбэя, Бомбея и Манилы. В отличие от социалистических стран, в которых местным административным органам присуща высокая исполнительская дисциплина, в несоциалистических государствах зачастую отсутствуют действенные административные органы на местах, потому переселенке жителей в основном не контролируется.





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