Пары рисунков

Поскольку пары рисунков представляли объекты, либо идентичные, либо относящиеся друг к другу как нормальный и зеркальный варианты, испытуемые не могли опираться при сравнении на отдельные внешние признаки. К примеру, число кубиков, расположенных между двумя соседними точками изгибов, было одинаковым как в идентичных, так и в энантиоморфных объектах. Таким образом, опора на явные отличительные признаки исключалась. По словам испытуемых, сравнение двух объектов могло осуществляться только путем мысленного поворота одного из них в положение, занимаемое другим, с последующим установлением степени их совпадения. Обычно испытуемые говорили, что они мысленно поворачивали объект, находящийся слева, до тех пор, пока его верхний отрезок не устанавливался параллельно соответствующему отрезку объекта, находящегося справа. Затем они пытались мысленно проследить, ориентирована ли остальная часть первого объекта в том же направлении, что и сходная часть второго.

Подтверждением субъективных отчетов испытуемых служили объективные данные о времени реакции — от момента предъявления рисунка до нажатия рычага. Время реакции изменялось прямо пропорционально углу, под которым один объект был повернут относительно другого. Когда объекты были ориентированы одинаково, испытуемым требовалось около I с для определения их идентичности; с увеличением угла поворота время реакции возрастало и достигало в среднем 4,4 с при максимально возможном угле — 180е. У всех восьми испытуемых было отмечено прямо пропорциональное увеличение времени реакции; индивидуальные особенности приводили к различию в крутизне линейной функции.

Эта прямая пропорциональность свидетельствует о том, что испытуемые сравнивали объекты, мысленно представляя, как один из них поворачивается с постоянной скоростью — в среднем 180° за 3,4 с (4,4 с минус I с, затрачиваемая на сравнение двух объектов, ориентированных одинаково), т.е. со средней скоростью 53° в секунду. Человек может использовать и другие способы для сравнения идентичных и энантиоморфных объектов, однако время, затраченное на реализацию любого из этих способов, не будет пропорционально углу относительного поворота сравниваемых фигур.

 

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