Потенциалы действия

Было установлено, что потенциалы действия, возникающие во время ответной реакции на колебание субстрата, различаются по величине. Вначале появлялись потенциалы большей амплитуды — они коррелировали с поступлением к рецепторам на лапках относительно быстро распространяющихся волн сжатия. Потенциалы меньшей величины регистрировались позже — когда до рецепторов доходили более медленные рэлеевские волны.

Впоследствии мне удалось установить, с какими конкретно рецепторами связаны выявленные два типа биоэлектрических сигналов. Я выборочно стимулировал каждый из тарзальных

механорецепторов и выяснил, что большие по величине потенциалы являются ответом на раздражение чувствительных волосков на лапке, а меньшие исходят от щелевидных сенсилл. То есть волоски воспринимают волны сжатия, а щелевидные сенсиллы реагируют на поступление рэлеевских волн.

Разница в характере чувствительности рецепторов этих двух типов становится понятной, если принять во внимание, как движутся частицы субстрата при распространении воспринимаемых этими рецепторами волн. Ф. Барт и его коллеги из Университета Гете во Франкфурте (ФРГ) показали, что шелевидная сенсилла особенно чувствительна к силам, сжимающим шель в направлении, перпендикулярном ее продольной оси. Именно такое сжатие осуществляет проходящая рэлеевская волна, поскольку вызываемое ею вертикальное движение частиц толкает концевой сегмент ноги вверх. А волосковые сенсиллы, находящиеся на нижней и боковых поверхностях ноги, погружены в песок и поэтому способны воспринимать горизонтальное движение частиц, возникающее при прохождении волн сжатия. Конечно, для скорпиона цель не в том, чтобы просто уловить движения частиц песка, — ему надо установить местонахождение жертвы. Каким-то образом скорпион извлекает из распространения волн нужную информацию и использует ее, чтобы определить положение источника колебаний. Поскольку, как было показано, щелевидные сенсиллы играют решающую роль в определении направления на источник колебании, рэлеевские волны представляют собой, по-видимому, тот сигнал, на основании которого устанавливается нужный угол поворота. Однако ни в строении щелевндных сенсилл и чувствительных волосков, ни в физиологии ответа нет ничего, что бы указывало на нацеленность рецепторов в том или ином направлении. Другими словами, независимо от угла, под которым приходит волна механических колебаний, рецепторы скорпиона реагируют одинаково.

 

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