Превращение нуклона в одну из частиц

При энергиях столкновения больше 1 ГэВ на нуклон рождаются адроны, которые тяжелее пионов. Одним из важных процессов является превращение нуклона в одну из частиц, которые обозначают как N’ -резонансы. Существует много таких частиц, и их можно расположить в порядке возрастания массы. Они имеют те же основные характеристики, что и протон или нейтрон, и построены из тех же кварков. Их можно рассматривать просто как возбужденные состояния нуклонов (по аналогии с возбужденными состояниями атомов), в которых кварки приобретают дополнительную энергию и угловой момент.

При еще больших энергиях могут образовываться другие мезоны и барионы. Открыто несколько сотен разных

адронов с массами, достигающими 10 ГэВ. В большинстве случаев массивные адроны распадаются за время порядка 10 23 с, так что за время ядерного столкновения, которое продолжается 10“22с, циклы рождения и распада повторяются несколько раз. Для данной энергии столкновения устанавливается равновесное распределение адронов по типам и массам: ядерная материя превращается в адронную. Именно это обстоятельство налагает ограничения на температуру в экспериментах при очень высоких энергиях. Энергия столкновения, которая, если бы рождение адронов не происходило, увеличивала бы кинетическую энергию нуклонов, превращается в массу возбужденных адронов. Вместо более быстрых частиц в столкновении образуются более тяжелые частицы.

Образование адронного вещества представляет собой разновидность фазового перехода, который характеризуется скрытой теплотой (как и переход жидкость — пар). Когда нагревают воду, сначала температура растет, затем, достигнув 100 °С, остается постоянной, а подводящееся тепло идет на парообразование. Рост температуры возобновляется только после того, как вся вода превратится в пар. Температурная кривая для ядерного вещества может иметь похожий вид. Вначале температура будет при нагревании возрастать, затем скорость возрастания упадет, так как нуклоны начнут превращаться в адроны с большими массами, и температура будет постепенно приближаться к максимальному значению, Быстрое возрастание температуры может возобновиться только после того, как все частицы в системе превратятся в адроны с наибольшей массой.

 

 

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