Причина и источник боковой эмиссии частиц

Причину и источник боковой эмиссии частиц, которая предсказывается гидродинамической моделью, можно лучше понять, рассмотрев, что происходит при столкновении ядра аргона с ядром-мишенью свинца. Падающее ядро с энергией 800 МэВ на нуклон движется со скоростью, составляющей 80% скорости света и в четыре раза превосходящей скорость звука в ядерном веществе при нормальной плотности. Когда ядро аргона врезается в ядро-мишень, впереди области столкновения возникает сверхзвуковая ударная волна. Эта волна аналогична ударной волне, возникающей в земной атмосфере при полете сверхзвукового самолета. Сначала волна движется преимущественно вперед, но по мере того как она «расталкивает» вещество на своем пути, она начинает распространяться наружу в разные стороны. На последних стадиях столкновения, когда плотность вещества уже невелика и начинается развал системы на фрагменты, коллективный поток вещества, вызванный ударной волной, приводит к испусканию продуктов реакции преимущественно в стороны.

Соответствующие модельные расчеты были выполнены Й. Никсом, Д.Строттманом и их коллегами в Лос- Аламосской национальной лаборатории, а также Г. Бухвальдом, Г.Грабне- ром и Й. Маруном из Университета во Франкфурте-на-Майне, которые работают с нами.

ПРЕДСКАЗАНИЯ какой из двух моделей лучше согласуются с экспериментальными данными? Останавливаются ли ядра при столкновении или оказываются «прозрачными» друг для друга? Прежде всего следует отметить, что интерпретация результатов экспериментов затруднена техническими ограничениями. До недавнего времени большинство экспериментов в ядерной физике проводилось с использованием относительно простого и дешевого оборудования. Когда интересы ученых сместились в сторону более высоких энергий, потребовались более сложные детекторы, чтобы получить больше информации о продуктах реакции. В нашем случае важно уметь отделить «лобовые» (или центральные) столкновения, в которых главную роль играют сверхзвуковые ударные волны, от периферических, которые с ударными волнами не связаны. Хорошим критерием для разделения столкновений этих двух типов является число испускаемых фрагментов, но с помощью примитивного детектора отобрать события с большой множественностью можно лишь приближенно.

 

 

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