Проблема шумового эффекта

Наличие внутренних шумов характерно для всех видов аналоговой аппаратуры. При преобразовании сигнала, например, микрофоном величина выходного сигнала очень близка к уровню теплового шума, обусловленного хаотическими колебаниями электронов в преобразователе. Такое неудовлетворительное соотношение объясняется тем, что к.п.д. преобразователя составляет около 1%. При записи сигнала на носитель последний сам становится источником шума. Объясняется это зернистой структурой материала носителя. В свою очередь причиной «зернистости» является конечная величина магнитных доменов в покрытии пленки, используемой для записи, или неровность поверхности пластинки. Этот шум определяет нижнюю границу разрешающей способности запоминающей среды.

Кроме того, у каждого элемента звуковой системы имеется и верхний предел: амплитуда сигнала может расти лишь до тех пор, пока система работает без перегрузки. Данное ограничение характерно для всех видов устройств: усилителя, не способного обеспечить большую мощность; динамика, диффузор которого не может перемещаться с большей амплитудой; пластинки, канавка на которой не может превышать определенную ширину. Критерием (конечно, не единственным) качества воспроизведения является разность между максимально возможной величиной полезного и шумового сигналов. Эта разность называется динамическим диапазоном и измеряется в децибелах. Другой ограничительной характеристикой всех звукозаписывающих устройств является ширина полосы пропускания. Она определяется предельной скоростью, с которой система способна реагировать на быстрые изменения амплитуды, характерные для звуковых сигналов. Независимо от причины, ограничивающей эту скорость, — будь то механическая инерционность, электрические или другие факторы — она будет всегда конечной и определять максимальную возможную частоту. Прохождение звуковых сигналов в звуковой системе строго ограничивается ее полосой пропускания (или ее частотным диапазоном). Звуковой сигнал состоит из совокупности гармонических колебаний — одной (основной) частоты, позволяющей слушателю судить о высоте звука, и ряда более высокочастотных составляющих (обертонов). Обертоны определяют тембр звука. Все эти элементы звукового сигнала присутствуют одновременно. В случае музыкальных тонов с наименьшей степенью диссонанса частоты обертонов кратны или почти кратны основной частоте.

 

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