Проблемы древесной культуры

В сельском хозяйстве интенсификация достигается путем улучшения возделываемой культуры и совершенствования агротехнических методов. Точно так же обстоит дело и с любой древесной культурой: необходимо постоянное улучшение таких показателей, как прямизна и цилиндричность сгволов, тонкость веток, а также мощность насаждений. Улучшение культивируемых деревьев должно обязательно сопровождаться разработкой агротехнических приемов подготовки почвы и внесением веществ, увеличивающих выход древесины. Однако сельскохозяйственная модель слишком приблизительна. Лесное древоводство включает несколько стадий (например, стадию питомника), не свойственных сельскому хозяйству; к тому же производственный цикл длится несколько лет, а значит, необходимо планировать промежуточные агротехнические мероприятия с учетом финансового равновесия всего производственного никла. Какие трудности возникают при работе с древесной культурой? Первая проблема связана с однородностью насаждений, образуемых деревьями одного вида, или нескольких клонов: деревья одного массива, имеющие один и тот же генотип, страдают от одних и тех же вредителей и от одних и тех же неблагоприятных климатических условий. Мы вернемся ниже к вопросу о необходимых мерах, устраняющих отрицательное воздействие этого фактора. Заметим, однако, что разнообразие экологических условий заставляет культивировать различные виды и клоны, иначе чересчур большие плошали

окажутся заняты одним и тем же видом или клоном. Кроме того, в такой стране, как Франция, где насаждения на плошали 15 га считаются довольно значительными, можно создавать только дробные массивы. Однако на примере моноклональной культуры тополей можно видеть, что однородность плантации не обязательно приводит к ее исчезновению. Разрушение почв, которое является следствием применения подобной агротехники, также вызывает беспокойство. В частности, монокультура способствует выщелачиванию почв: ценные химические элементы и растворимые химические вещества мигрируют из поверхностных слоев почвы (элювиальных) в более глубокие слои (иллювиальные). И выщелачивание, и скопление одинаково вредны. Заметим, впрочем, что лесные почвы выщелачиваются в результате естественной эволюции (наиболее известный пример — это разрушение почв в дубовых лесах Атлантического побережья).

 

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