Проблемы планирования

Эквадор и Панама могут служить примером таких стран, в которых относительная численность населения в центральных агломерациях за последние десятилетия резко увеличилась. В 1952 г. в двух районах Эквадора с центрами в столице Кито и портовом городе Гуаякиле проживало 30% населения страны. В 1982 г. эта доля составляла уже 42%. Если темпы притока населения в эти города или в их пригороды сохранятся на таком же уровне, то к 2000 г. на территории этих двух центральных районов будет проживать больше половины всего населения. За 30 лет, с 1950 по 1980 г., доля населения Панамы, проживающего в столице или близ нее, увеличилась с 31 до 46%. При сохранении таких темпов уже к 1990 г. в этом районе будет проживать большая часть населения страны.

Проблемы планирования, возникающие в связи с резким увеличением абсолютной численности населения в крупных городах развивающихся стран, можно продемонстрировать на примере центрального района Джаботабек в Индонезии с центром в Джакарте, число жителей в котором постоянно увеличивается. В 1961 г. в Джаботабеке проживало 6,7 млн. человек. В течение следующих 20 лет темпы прироста населения в этом районе были значительно выше, чем в целом по стране, и к 1981 г. в столичном районе проживало уже более 13 млн. человек. По оценкам министерства общественных работ Индонезии, создание системы общественного транспорта в Джаботабеке в предстоящие 10 лет обойдется в 1,2 млрд. долл. Эта сумма почти в семь раз выше той, которая предусмотрена в национальном бюджете на развитие всех видов общественного транспорта на территории страны на период с 1984 по 1988 г. Подсчитано также, что для создания только в Джакарте необходимой системы водоснабжения потребуется сумма, равная 60% всех средств, предусмотренных последним пятилетним планом на развитие системы водоснабжения во всем государстве.

 

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