Распознавание других нейронов

Таким образом, филоподии распознают другие нейроны и определяют соответствующее направление роста аксона? На основании результатов наших совместных исследований с Дж. Рейпером мы предложили для ответа на этот вопрос гипотезу «меченых путей». Предполагается, что соседние нервные пучки в эмбриональном  помечены вполне определенным образом с помощью специальных «молекул распознавания», расположенных на поверхности этих пучков. Мы уже знаем, что на восьмые сутки эмбрионального развития филоподии нейрона С подходят к 25 различным нервным пучкам. Согласно нашей гипотезе, на поверхности пучка А/Р, в частности на его /–аксонах, должны быть метки, которых нет ни на каком другом продольном нервном пучке. Чтобы проверить это предсказание, мы избирательно убивали или нейроны А,     или Р, или и те и другие одновременно. После такой операции конус роста нейрона С вел себя иначе.

Если убить и нейроны А, и нейроны Р, то большинство из 100 других нервных клеток того же полусегмента развиваются нормально, чего нельзя сказать про нейрон С. В отсутствие пучка А/Р поведение его конуса роста выглядит так, будто он потерял направление движения. Он начинает активно ветвиться, но без какой-либо связи с остальными нервными пучками. Если убить только клетки А, конус роста нейрона С ведет себя нормально, двигаясь вдоль пучка аксонов Р. Когда же убивают только нейроны Р, он не проявляет сродства к аксонам А и неспособен распознать пучок А /Р.

Полученные результаты позволяют считать, что просто близость к определенному пучку не может быть определяющим фактором для врастания в него данного конуса роста, поскольку даже в отсутствие аксонов Р аксоны А остаются на своим прежнем месте в системе. Эти данные не укладываются и в более тонкое объяснение, предполагающее существование временного механизма. Зато они поддерживают представление о наличии на поверхности аксонов Р меток, качественно отличных от тех, которые имеются на других нервных отростках, окружающих аксоны Р.

Конус роста нейрона С контактирует с 25 аксонными пучками и по крайней мере в одном из них — пучке А/Р—имеются два различно помеченных компонента. Значит, аксоны в этой части нейропиля и на данной стадии развития должны быть помечены молекулами распознавания не менее чем 25, а возможно, и 50 различных видов.

 

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