Различность географических рас

Например, у ели Picea siichensis в Бретани чем южнее произрастает разновидность, тем большей мощностью отличаются посадки; у сосны Pin us radiata в Стране Басков наблюдается обратная зависимость. В других случаях, например у сосны обыкновенной Pmus sy/vesiris, признаки различных географических рас и их адаптация к среде не подчиняются никаким законам. Они отражают случайные факторы процесса миграции в результате последовательных фаз расширения и сужения естественного ареала.

Внутри одной географической расы, занимающей несколько тысяч гектаров в зоне естественного произрастания, выделяются популяции, которые состоят в свою очередь из субпопуляций, образованных несколькими семьями (от 10 до 100), обычно находящимися в родстве вследствие долголетия производителей (от 100 до 1000 лет) и обилия семенного материала, распространяющегося вокруг них. Такое родство, более или менее выраженное в зависимости от способа распространения мужских половых клеток (пыльцы), свойственно лесным деревьям.

В целях селекции в субпопуляциях данной расы отбираются особи с наиболее ярко выраженными признаками этих субпопуляций. На семенных участках делаются прививки материала, взятого с деревьев, и таким образом получают начальную популяцию, называемую F0. Перекрестное опыление — естественное или искусственное — позволяет получить в популяции F0 гетерозиготное сочетание генов, в результате чего достигается первое генетическое преимущество (это явление называется аддитивностью): гибриды обычно более устойчивы, чем гомози-

готные особи. С участку F0 удаляются особи со слабой способностью к рекомбинации; при этом производители (F0) оцениваются по свойствам их потомства в первом поколении (F(). Путем селекции экземпляров привитых на втором участке, получают дочернюю популяцию (F2), усовершенствованную в результате двух первых этапов отбора.

Подобную селекцию можно продолжать на нескольких поколениях, однако она имеет ряд недостатков. Во – первых, ввиду того что отбор проводится в полевых условиях, с течением времени неизбежно возникает состояние родства даже тогда, когда популяция достигает нескольких сотен особей. Во-вторых, в силу тех же причин невозможно воспользоваться преимуществами специфических благоприятных комбинаций между двумя отдельными родительскими формами.

 

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