Ремонт

Подобный ремонт, конечно, увеличивал срок службы корабля: судно «Сантисима Тринидад» служило 36 лет, прежде чем его затопили у мыса Трафальгар, а флагману адмирала Нельсона «Виктори» было 40 лет. Чистое днище корабля имело свои преимущества: свободное от морских обрастаний судно могло развить ббль- шую скорость и имело лучшую маневренность. Однако скорость не всегда была залогом успеха. Как сообщает хроника тех времен, в Трафальгарском сражении английский корабль «Ройял Соврин», днище которого было незадолго до этого обшито медью, ушел далеко вперед от своей эскадры и был атакован испанским 112-пушечным судном «Санта Ана».

Ремонт военных кораблей недешево обходился правительствам морских держав. По данным специалиста по истории экономики Хосе П. Мерино Наварро, сотрудника Мадридского национального университета, военный корабль «Виктори», строительство которого в 1765 г. обошлось Англии в 63 тыс. ф.ст., потребовал ремонта в период до конца наполеоновских войн (1815 г.) на сумму около 372 тыс. ф.ст. Тем не менее, чтобы защитить свои интересы в Америке и на Филиппинах, Испания имела судоремонтных верфей больше, чем Англия и Франция. Испанские корабли всегда были в лучшей боевой форме, чем английские. Английский адмирал лорд Катберт Коллингвуд, один из величайших мореплавателей своего времени, неоднократно докладывал Нельсону и Адмиралтейству о плачевном состоянии английских линейных кораблей. Историки писали, что Англия не в состоянии была не только победить, но и участвовать ещё в одном сражении, подобном Трафальгарскому, без того чтобы «очистить королевский флот от гнили». Эта задача, несомненно, потребовала бы от английского правительства огромных расходов.

Обновление испанского флота в XVIII в. явилось частью программы модернизации в различных отраслях, предпринятой королем Карлом III, одним из «просвещенных деспотов» своего столетия. Карл 111 усовершенствовал методы управления и долгосрочного планирования в промышленности страны; это коснулось и королевских верфей. Одним из нововведений была стандартизация проектов военных кораблей. В начале XVIII в. каждый построенный военный корабль был уникальным по своей конструкции. К 70-м годам XVIII в. навио были разделены на шесть основных рангов, и корабли каждого ранга строились в соответствии с общими конструктивными требованиями. Более того, конструкции корпусов и палуб, где размещалось вооружение, а также парусное снаряжение кораблей разных рангов должны были быть одинаковыми.

 

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