Результаты экспериментов

Результаты экспериментов подтверждают, что обычно мы воспринимаем дискретные фонематические категории, а не непрерывные вариации каждого акустического параметра.

Иными словами, мы воспринимаем речь категориально. В экспериментах, проведенных в Лаборатории Хаскинса под руководством Л. Лискера и

А.  Абрамсона, взрослые прослушивали создаваемые компьютером речевые DAH

звуки, которые различались между собой по времени начала фонации. Несмотря на большую вариативность этих различий, испытуемые слышали почти все стимулы либо как звонкую фонему, такую как начальная согласная в слоге bah («ба»), либо как глухую фонему типа согласной, начинающей cnovpah («па»). Граница, т.е. время начала фонации, при котором испытуемые начинали слышать pah вместо bah, приходилась примерно на значение 30 мс, отсчитываемых от конца смычки.

Для того чтобы подтвердить категориальный характер восприятия речи, экспериментаторы просили испытуемых сравнивать пары стимулов, различающихся по времени начала фонации. Если в обоих звуках задержка фонации была меньше 30 мс, то звуки, как правило, воспринимались слушающими как два варианта одного слога bah; если же интервал между смычкой и фонацией для обоих звуков превышал 30 мс, то испытуемые были склонны считать, что дважды слышали слог pah. К. Вулф из Университета Брауна получила аналогичные данные по категориальному восприятию звуков речи у школьников.

В КАКОЙ степени механизм категориального восприятия, позволяющий нам правильно воспринимать речь в отсутствие однозначной определенности речевого сигнала, является врожденным? Тот факт, что говорящие на различных языках «настроены» на несколько различные фонематические признаки, предполагает, что воздействие языковой среды на восприятие речи весьма существенно.

 

 

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