Семена сосны

Мы приступили к производству семян генетически улучшенной сосны приморской и улучшенных клонов, вы водим клоны елей и холодоустойчивых эвкалиптов, деревьев, которые уже появляются на рынке. Микрочеренкование в лабораторных условиях полностью освоено для таких пород, как эвкалипт, секвойя и сосна. Техника микро – черенкования дугласин и ели обыкновенной нуждается в доработке. Уже получена культура меристем секвойи и достигнуты некоторые успехи в этой области с дугласией, однако метод протопластов находится еще на стадии лабораторных исследований. Слияние клеток осуществлено пока только у недревесных растений, например у Nicotiana.

В настоящее время можно получать саженцы клонов сосны приморской, ели обыкновенной, секвойи и эвкалипта. Скоро будут созданы клоны других пород сосны, орешника и дуба. Затем мы приступим к созданию клонов дугласии. Эти растения будут получены путем черенкования в питомниках.

Производство саженцев

Опытные лесоводы утверждают, что основное условие успешного облесения заключается в использовании качественных саженцев. Что такое качественный саженец? Традиционно считается, что саженец должен быть хорошо сформирован, несколько приземист и обладать хорошо развитой корневой системой. В питомнике саженцы такого типа получают на третий или четвертый гол выращивания. Очевидно, что по экономическим соображениям требуется сократить этот срок до нескольких месяцев. Саженец должен быть, кроме того, одревесневшим, не нитевидным, здоровым н без изъянов. Он не должен иметь следов термического и водного поражения.

Качество корневой системы играет важную роль, так как корни очень хрупки и корневые волоски быстро гибнут под воздействием воздуха и солнечных лучей. Эти обстоятельства создают неудобства при посадке саженцев традиционным путем, т.е. с обнаженными корнями, так как часть корневой мочки разрушается при выкапывании, а другая часть неизбежно пересыхает при транспортировке.

В настоящее время практикуют посадку саженцев с комком земли, но контейнеры (горшочки из глины, бумаги или пластика), которые при этом используются, часто деформируют корни. Если растущий корень встречает препятствие, то он отклоняется от первоначального направления роста и принимает форму спирали.

 

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